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Jeffrey J. Selfriz, Joan L. Duda, and Likang Chi

Drawing from contemporary goal perspective theories of achievement motivation, this investigation had as its primary purpose to determine the relationship of perceived motivational climate to intrinsic motivation and attributional beliefs in a sport setting. This study also examined the degree to which the dependent variables of interest are a function of situational goal structure, dispositional goal orientations, or both. Subjects, 105 male basketball players from nine varsity high school teams, were requested to complete the four instruments. Results indicated that the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire was comprised of two valid and reliable subscales, the Mastery and Performance Climate scales. Perceptions of a mastery-oriented climate positively related to reported enjoyment and the belief that effort leads to achievement. Perceptions of a performance-oriented climate were associated with the view that superior ability causes success. In general, indices of intrinsic motivation and attributional beliefs were best predicted by dispositional goal orientation.

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George B. Cunningham and Ping Xiang

Guided by achievement goal theory, the current study examined whether perceived motivational climate mediated the relationship between achievement goals and satisfaction with physical activity among college students, as well as whether this mediation differed by sex. Participants (N = 304) completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, perceived motivational climate, and satisfaction with physical activity. Perceptions of a mastery-focused climate were found to be a mediator of the relationship between mastery goals and satisfaction. The mediating role of perceived motivational climate did not differ based on the sex of the student. Collectively, results of this study support the view that mastery goals and perceived mastery climate are motivationally beneficial to students in the physical activity domain.

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Mary D. Fry, Candace M. Hogue, Susumu Iwasaki, and Gloria B. Solomon

Motivational Climate Perceptions To quantify athlete perceptions of the motivational climate on their teams, they were asked to complete the Caring Climate Scale ( Newton et al., 2007 ) and the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire ( Seifriz et al., 1992 ). Athletes were asked to think about

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Maria Kavussanu and Glyn C. Roberts

This study examined the relationship between perceived motivational climate and intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy and determined the role of goal orientation and perceived motivational climate in predicting intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. College students (N = 285) enrolled in beginning tennis classes completed a battery of questionnaires assessing perceived motivational climate, goal orientation, intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy, and perceived ability. Perceptions of mastery climate were positively associated with enjoyment, effort, perceived competence, and self-efficacy and were inversely related to tension. In males, dispositional goal orientation and perceived motivational climate emerged as equally important predictors of intrinsic motivation, while mastery motivational climate was the only significant predictor of self-efficacy. In females, performance motivational climate was the strongest predictor of intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. Perceived normative ability accounted for a substantial amount of unique variance in intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy in both males and females. The motivational implications of the findings are discussed, and directions for future research are provided.

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Mary D. Walling, Joan L. Duda, and Likang Chi

The purpose of this study was to further examine the construct and predictive validity of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire or PMCSQ. Young athletes (N = 169, M age = 14.2 ± 1.94 years) on teams competing in an amateur international competition completed questionnaires measuring perceived motivational climate, the degree of worry experienced while participating, and team satisfaction. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis indicated an acceptable fit of the data with the hypothetical measurement model. In terms of the predictive utility of the PMCSQ, perceptions of a mastery climate were positively related to satisfaction with being a member on the team and negatively associated with performance worry. In contrast, perceptions of a performance climate were positively associated with concerns about failing and the adequacy of one's performance and negatively correlated with team satisfaction. Future directions in terms of instrument development and research on motivational climate in the sport setting are presented.

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Amy L. Halliburton and Maureen R. Weiss

Theoretically grounded in the work of Harter (1978, 1981) and Ames (1992a), three research questions were addressed in the present study: (a) Do sources of competence information vary by skill level? (b) Do perceptions of the motivational climate vary by skill level? and (c) Are sources of competence information and perceived motivational climate related? Adolescent female gymnasts (N = 103, ages 12–14 years) competing at Skill Levels 5 to 10 completed measures regarding sources of competence information and perceived motivational climate. Results revealed that: (a) gymnasts competing at lower levels (5–6, 7) used sources of effort and enjoyment more than did gymnasts competing at higher levels (8, 9, and 10), who used feelings of nervousness and spectator feedback more frequently; (b) no significant differences emerged in perceptions of the motivational climate among gymnasts competing at various skill levels; and (c) a significant relationship emerged between use of sources of competence information and perceived motivational climate. In general, perceptions of a mastery climate were associated with the use of self-referenced sources of information, whereas perceptions of a performance climate were associated with the use of peer comparison and competition performance sources of information.

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John C. K. Wang, Woon Chia Liu, Nikos L. D. Chatzisarantis, and Coral B. S. Lim

The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of perceived motivational climate on achievement goals in physical education using a structural equation mixture modeling (SEMM) analysis. Within one analysis, we identified groups of students with homogenous profiles in perceptions of motivational climate and examined the relationships between motivational climate, 2 × 2 achievement goals, and affect, concurrently. The findings of the current study showed that there were at least two distinct groups of students with differing perceptions of motivational climate: one group of students had much higher perceptions in both climates compared with the other group. Regardless of their grouping, the relationships between motivational climate, achievement goals, and enjoyment seemed to be invariant. Mastery climate predicted the adoption of mastery-approach and mastery-avoidance goals; performance climate was related to performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals. Mastery-approach goal had a strong positive effect while performance-avoidance had a small negative effect on enjoyment. Overall, it was concluded that only perception of a mastery motivational climate in physical education may foster intrinsic interest in physical education through adoption of mastery-approach goals.

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Athanasios G. Papaioannou, Nikolaos Tsigilis, Eudoxia Kosmidou, and Dimitrios Milosis

A new instrument of motivational climate in physical education is presented with the goal of measuring perceptions of teachers’ emphasis on mastery, performance–approach, performance–avoidance, and social approval goals. The measure was based on the principle of compatibility, according to which climate perceptions and achievement goals should be compatible between each other in terms of target, action domain, life context, and time. The measure was administered to 928 middle school students alongside scales of intrinsic motivation, amotivation, and satisfaction. The statistical analyses included structural equation modeling, investigation of factor correlations, correlation of this measure with intrinsic motivation, satisfaction, and amotivation in physical education and investigation of intraclass correlations. The findings provide evidence of construct validity for the new measure and suggest that mastery and social approval goals can facilitate intrinsic motivation of students.

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Christine E. Johnson, Heather E. Erwin, Lindsay Kipp, and Aaron Beighle

We used achievement goal theory to examine students’ physical activity (PA) motivation and physical education (PE) enjoyment. Purposes included: 1) determine whether schools with different pedagogical approaches varied in student perceptions of mastery and performance climate dimensions, enjoyment, and PA; 2) examine gender and grade differences in enjoyment and PA; and 3) determine if dimensions of motivational climate predicted enjoyment and PA levels in PE, controlling for gender and grade. Youth (n = 290, 150 girls) from three southeast United States middle schools wore a pedometer and completed a motivational climate and enjoyment questionnaire. Boys were more active and enjoyed PE more than girls, and 7th/8th grade students were more active than 6th grade students. Enjoyment was positively predicted by teacher’s emphasis on two mastery climate dimensions, controlling for gender. PE activity time was predicted by two performance climate dimensions, controlling for gender and grade. Implications for practice are discussed.

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Susumu Iwasaki, Mary D. Fry, and Candace M. Hogue

, & Warburton, 2011 ; Fry & Gano-Overway, 2010 ; Harwood, Keegan, Smith, & Raine, 2015 ; Roberts, 2012 ). Researchers have also shown that the perceived motivational climate on sports teams may predict how coachable the players are ( Fry, Hogue, Iwasaki, & Solomon, 2021 ). Smith, Smoll, Schutz, and Ptacek