representative task designs or in situ research can require movement (motor) responses to the presented stimuli. Sport-specific response modes in experimental tasks are suggested to maintain the important links between perception and action that are formed during the previous experience on the task ( Mann
Stefanie Hüttermann, Paul R. Ford, A. Mark Williams, Matyas Varga and Nicholas J. Smeeton
Peter J. Lang
Emotions are organized around 2 basic motivational systems, appetitive and defensive, that evolved from primitive neural circuits in the mammalian brain. The appetitive system is keyed for approach behavior, founded on the preservative, sexual, and nurturant reflexes that underlie pleasant affects; the defense system is keyed for withdrawal, founded on protective and escape reflexes that underlie unpleasant affects. Both systems control attentional processing: Distal engagement by motive-relevant cues prompts immobility and orienting. With greater cue proximity (e.g., predator or prey imminence), neural motor centers supercede, determining overt defensive or consummatory action. In humans, these systems determine affective expression, evaluation behavior, and physiological responses that can be related to specific functional changes in the brain. This theoretical approach is illustrated with psychophysiological and brain imagery studies in which human subjects respond to emotional picture stimuli.
Wim H. van Lier, John van der Kamp and Geert J.P. Savelsbergh
We assessed how golfers cope with the commonly observed systematic overshoot errors in the perception of the direction between the ball and the hole. Experiments 1 and 2, in which participants were required to rotate a pointer such that it pointed to the center of the hole, showed that errors in perceived direction (in degrees of deviation from the perfect aiming line) are destroyed when the head is constrained to move within a plane perpendicular to the green. Experiment 3 compared the errors in perceived direction and putting errors of novice and skilled players. Unlike the perceived direction, putting accuracy (in degrees of deviation from the perfect aiming line) was not affected by head position. Novices did show a rightward putting error, while skilled players did not. We argue that the skill-related differences in putting accuracy reflect a process of recalibration. Implications for aiming in golf are discussed.
Matthieu M. de Wit, Rich S.W. Masters and John van der Kamp
Based upon evidence that vision for action has quicker access to visual information than vision for perception, we hypothesized that the two systems may have differentiated visual thresholds. There is also evidence that, unlike vision for perception, vision for action is insensitive to cognitive dual-task interference. Using visual masking, we determined the visual thresholds of 15 participants in a perception task, an action task and an action plus concurrent cognitive secondary task. There was no difference in threshold between the perception task and the action task, but the action plus concurrent secondary task was accompanied by a greater visual threshold than both the perception task and the action task alone, indicating dual-task interference. The action task was thus most likely informed by vision for perception. The implications of these results are reviewed in the context of recent discussions of the two visual systems model.
Wenchong Du, Anna Barnett and Kate Wilmut
Perception and action are tightly coupled, and previous studies have demonstrated that action experience can improve perceptual judgment. We investigated whether this improvement in perceptual judgment could be attributed to knowledge regarding movement variability being gained during action experience. Fifteen adults made perceptual judgments regarding the passability of a series of aperture sizes. These judgments were made both before and after walking through the same set of apertures (action experience). When considering the group as a whole, perceptual judgment did not change after action experience. However, when splitting the group into those with low and high preaction perceptual judgments, only those with low perceptual judgments showed an improvement in perceptual judgment following action experience, which could be explained in part by movement variability during the approach. These data demonstrate that action informs perception and that this allows adults to account for movement variability when making perceptual judgments regarding action capabilities.
Beyond the trivial assumption that without a body we cannot gather sensory information from the environment and we cannot act upon it, our particular body, right here, right now, both enables and constrains our perception of the environment. In this review, I provide empirical support for the idea that our physical body can narrow the set of our possible interactions with the environment by shaping the way we perceive stimuli around us. I will propose that such effects are contributed by the effect of our physical body—that is, flesh and bone body—on the oscillatory dynamics of intrinsic brain activity.
David I. Anderson
, health, and psychological functioning. They have expanded descriptions of how skills develop, highlighted the multimodal nature of perception and action, validated assessments, intervened to promote motor development in children with disease or disability, and translated research into practice. Despite
Becky W. Pissanos and Pamela C. Allison
The purpose of this topical life history was to gain insight into the individual and socializing conditions that influenced an experienced elementary school physical education teacher’s perceptions and actions regarding continued professional learning. The teacher was interviewed in a series of five interviews over a 3-year period. The audiotaped transcriptions were subjected to the constant comparison data analysis technique, with the emergent patterns reported as results. Continued professional learning was valued as an essential concept associated with being a professional because it ultimately increased the teacher’s potential for helping students learn. Professional development experiences associated with the teacher’s undergraduate professional preparation institution and participation in a national curriculum project contributed most significantly to the teacher’s continued professional learning. The teacher’s continued professional learning was influenced by (a) students, (b) status, (c) administrative support, (d) community perceptions of sport, and (e) personal/professional interactions.
Markus Janczyk and Wilfried Kunde
According to the Perception-Action-Model (PAM), the human visual cortex consists of the ventral vision-for-perception and the dorsal vision-for-action streams. Performance decrements with increasing variation of nominally task-irrelevant stimulus features (Garner-Interference) was suggested as an empirical tool for identifying contributions of these streams: vision-for-perception, but not visionfor-action, should suffer from Garner-Interference, but inconsistencies in this argument were revealed by several studies. We here used a new manipulation to induce Garner-Interference in a dorsal task: The stimulus objects did not differ in their lengths but in the side to which they were weighted. In Experiment 1, Garner-Interference was found in a ventral perceptual judgment task. Notably, we did also find Garner-Interference in skilled right-handed grasping in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the presence or absence of Garner-Interference does not consistently index the contribution of different processing streams for perception and action, but the coprocessing of nominally task-irrelevant stimulus features in general, be it for perception of action.
Steven van Andel, Michael H. Cole and Gert-Jan Pepping
for an approach to fall risk assessment that considers the entire perceptual-motor system and the intrinsic scaling of perception and action ( Andel, Cole, & Pepping, 2017 ). A locomotion task in which perceptual-motor regulation has been well studied is the task of approaching and placing a foot on a