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Daniel J. Madigan, Joachim Stoeber and Louis Passfield

Perfectionism in sports has been shown to be associated with burnout in athletes. Whether perfectionism predicts longitudinal changes in athlete burnout, however, is still unclear. Using a two-wave cross-lagged panel design, the current study examined perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, and athlete burnout in 101 junior athletes (mean age 17.7 years) over 3 months of active training. When structural equation modeling was employed to test a series of competing models, the best-fitting model showed opposite patterns for perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. Whereas perfectionistic concerns predicted increases in athlete burnout over the 3 mon ths, perfectionistic strivings predicted decreases. The present findings suggest that perfectionistic concerns are a risk factor for junior athletes contributing to the development of athlete burnout whereas perfectionistic strivings appear to be a protective factor.

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Daniel J. Madigan, Thomas Curran, Joachim Stoeber, Andrew P. Hill, Martin M. Smith and Louis Passfield

trait-like and develops in childhood and adolescence, but also shows changes over the life span (e.g.,  Landa & Bybee, 2007 ). The current consensus is that perfectionism is comprised of two higher order dimensions. First, perfectionistic strivings encompass perfectionist personal standards and a self

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Miranda P. Kaye, David E. Conroy and Angela M. Fifer

This study compared the fear of failure and perfectionism constructs by analyzing their latent structure as well as their motivational antecedents and consequences. College students (N = 372) enrolled in physical activity classes completed a battery of questionnaires assessing fear of failure, perfectionism, approach and avoidance motivational temperaments, and 2 × 2 achievement goals. Structural equation modeling revealed that responses were best summarized by two correlated factors representing perfectionistic strivings and concerns. Avoidance temperament was positively associated with both forms of incompetence avoidance; however, approach temperament was positively related only to perfectionist strivings. Perfectionistic concerns were positively related to the adoption of mastery-avoidance and performance-avoidance goals and negatively related to the adoption of mastery-approach goals. Perfectionistic strivings were positively associated with both approach goals. These results indicate that strivings to avoid incompetence can be distinguished with respect to their latent structure, temperamental antecedents, and motivational consequences.

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Daniel J. Madigan, Joachim Stoeber and Louis Passfield

Perfectionism in sports has been shown to predict longitudinal changes in athlete burnout. What mediates these changes over time, however, is still unclear. Adopting a self-determination theory perspective and using a three-wave longitudinal design, the current study examined perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and athlete burnout in 141 junior athletes (mean age = 17.3 years) over 6 months of active training. When multilevel structural equation modeling was employed to test a mediational model, a differential pattern of between- and within-person relationships emerged. Whereas autonomous motivation mediated the negative relationship that perfectionistic strivings had with burnout at the between- and within-person level, controlled motivation mediated the positive relationship that perfectionistic concerns had with burnout at the between-persons level only. The present findings suggest that differences in autonomous and controlled motivation explain why perfectionism predicts changes in athlete burnout over time.

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Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Andrew P. Hill, Jennifer Cumming, Imogen J. Aujla and Emma Redding

The present study examined the relationship between dance-related perfectionism and perceptions of motivational climate in dance over time. In doing so, three possibilities were tested: (a) perfectionism affects perceptions of the motivational climate, (b) perceptions of the motivational climate affect perfectionism, and (c) the relationship is reciprocal. Two hundred seventy-one young dancers (M = 14.21 years old, SD = 1.96) from UK Centres for Advanced Training completed questionnaires twice, approximately 6 months apart. Cross-lagged analysis indicated that perfectionistic concerns led to increased perceptions of an ego-involving climate and decreased perceptions of a task-involving climate over time. In addition, perceptions of a task-involving climate led to increased perfectionistic strivings over time. The findings suggest that perfectionistic concerns may color perceptions of training/performing environments so that mistakes are deemed unacceptable and only superior performance is valued. They also suggest that perceptions of a task-involving climate in training/performing environments may encourage striving for excellence and perfection without promoting excessive concerns regarding their attainment.

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Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

Edited by Kim Gammage

multisport college athletes. Data were collected from 351 NCAA track-and-field athletes competing at Division II and III colleges. Participants responded to demographic questions and measures of perfectionism (perfectionistic concerns and perfectionistic strivings), perceived stress, and burnout. Results

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

influence a variety of sport-related outcomes. One dimension of perfectionism typically related to positive outcomes in sport is perfectionistic strivings or setting high personal performance standards. An individual’s personal strivings may influence sport-specific activity engagement. Furthermore, this

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

debilitating as it arises as a coping response to unmet needs of self-esteem and belonging. As such, self-critical perfectionists strive for self-worth and others’ approval via the attainment of excessive standards and engage in harsh self-criticism when these needs are not met. A series of studies by Levine

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Esmie P. Smith, Andrew P. Hill and Howard K. Hall

factor analysis of multiple instruments designed to measure perfectionism and provides support for consideration of two broad dimensions of perfectionism (e.g.,  Cox, Enns, & Clara, 2002 ). These two dimensions are termed perfectionistic strivings (PS) and perfectionistic concerns (PC). PS captures self

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Thomas Curran and Andrew P. Hill

. Based on current approaches to examining combinations of perfectionism, the most problematic combination is thought to be low self-oriented perfectionism and high socially prescribed perfectionism ( Gaudreau, 2016 ). This is because the presence of aspects of perfectionistic strivings (viz