excessively high personal standards, which are accompanied by overly critical evaluations of behavior ( Frost & Marten, 1990 ). Current understanding suggests that perfectionism is a multidimensional trait and includes two higher order dimensions: perfectionistic strivings (PS), reflecting personal standards
Dean R. Watson, Andrew P. Hill, and Daniel J. Madigan
Daniel J. Madigan, Joachim Stoeber, and Louis Passfield
Perfectionism in sports has been shown to be associated with burnout in athletes. Whether perfectionism predicts longitudinal changes in athlete burnout, however, is still unclear. Using a two-wave cross-lagged panel design, the current study examined perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, and athlete burnout in 101 junior athletes (mean age 17.7 years) over 3 months of active training. When structural equation modeling was employed to test a series of competing models, the best-fitting model showed opposite patterns for perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. Whereas perfectionistic concerns predicted increases in athlete burnout over the 3 mon ths, perfectionistic strivings predicted decreases. The present findings suggest that perfectionistic concerns are a risk factor for junior athletes contributing to the development of athlete burnout whereas perfectionistic strivings appear to be a protective factor.
Daniel J. Madigan, Thomas Curran, Joachim Stoeber, Andrew P. Hill, Martin M. Smith, and Louis Passfield
trait-like and develops in childhood and adolescence, but also shows changes over the life span (e.g., Landa & Bybee, 2007 ). The current consensus is that perfectionism is comprised of two higher order dimensions. First, perfectionistic strivings encompass perfectionist personal standards and a self
Frazer Atkinson, Jeffrey J. Martin, and E. Whitney G. Moore
competence. Moreover, individuals who report being high in adaptive perfectionism (i.e., perfectionistic strivings) have high personal standards, set challenging goals, and are highly motivated, which has been linked to increased confidence. In contrast, athletes high in maladaptive perfectionism (i
Luke F. Olsson, Michael C. Grugan, Joseph N. Martin, and Daniel J. Madigan
measures and associated perfectionism dimensions can be integrated into a higher order model of perfectionism (also known as the two-factor model; see Stoeber & Madigan, 2016 ). The higher order model consists of two broad dimensions of perfectionism labeled perfectionistic strivings (PS) and
Miranda P. Kaye, David E. Conroy, and Angela M. Fifer
This study compared the fear of failure and perfectionism constructs by analyzing their latent structure as well as their motivational antecedents and consequences. College students (N = 372) enrolled in physical activity classes completed a battery of questionnaires assessing fear of failure, perfectionism, approach and avoidance motivational temperaments, and 2 × 2 achievement goals. Structural equation modeling revealed that responses were best summarized by two correlated factors representing perfectionistic strivings and concerns. Avoidance temperament was positively associated with both forms of incompetence avoidance; however, approach temperament was positively related only to perfectionist strivings. Perfectionistic concerns were positively related to the adoption of mastery-avoidance and performance-avoidance goals and negatively related to the adoption of mastery-approach goals. Perfectionistic strivings were positively associated with both approach goals. These results indicate that strivings to avoid incompetence can be distinguished with respect to their latent structure, temperamental antecedents, and motivational consequences.
Daniel J. Madigan, Joachim Stoeber, and Louis Passfield
Perfectionism in sports has been shown to predict longitudinal changes in athlete burnout. What mediates these changes over time, however, is still unclear. Adopting a self-determination theory perspective and using a three-wave longitudinal design, the current study examined perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and athlete burnout in 141 junior athletes (mean age = 17.3 years) over 6 months of active training. When multilevel structural equation modeling was employed to test a mediational model, a differential pattern of between- and within-person relationships emerged. Whereas autonomous motivation mediated the negative relationship that perfectionistic strivings had with burnout at the between- and within-person level, controlled motivation mediated the positive relationship that perfectionistic concerns had with burnout at the between-persons level only. The present findings suggest that differences in autonomous and controlled motivation explain why perfectionism predicts changes in athlete burnout over time.
Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Andrew P. Hill, Jennifer Cumming, Imogen J. Aujla, and Emma Redding
The present study examined the relationship between dance-related perfectionism and perceptions of motivational climate in dance over time. In doing so, three possibilities were tested: (a) perfectionism affects perceptions of the motivational climate, (b) perceptions of the motivational climate affect perfectionism, and (c) the relationship is reciprocal. Two hundred seventy-one young dancers (M = 14.21 years old, SD = 1.96) from UK Centres for Advanced Training completed questionnaires twice, approximately 6 months apart. Cross-lagged analysis indicated that perfectionistic concerns led to increased perceptions of an ego-involving climate and decreased perceptions of a task-involving climate over time. In addition, perceptions of a task-involving climate led to increased perfectionistic strivings over time. The findings suggest that perfectionistic concerns may color perceptions of training/performing environments so that mistakes are deemed unacceptable and only superior performance is valued. They also suggest that perceptions of a task-involving climate in training/performing environments may encourage striving for excellence and perfection without promoting excessive concerns regarding their attainment.
Thomas D. Raedeke, Victoria Blom, and Göran Kenttä
, 1990 ). Although perfectionism is multidimensional in nature, factor analytic studies have revealed two higher-order dimensions, including perfectionistic strivings and concerns. Perfectionistic concerns are reflected by doubts about action and concerns over mistakes, along with perceptions of high
Erika D. Van Dyke, Aaron Metzger, and Sam J. Zizzi
different proposed frameworks based on two higher-order dimensions of perfectionism—perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. Although a point of some debate among researchers in recent years (e.g., Flett & Hewitt, 2005 ), perfectionistic strivings have often been considered adaptive and