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Rachael L. Thurecht and Fiona E. Pelly

factors, such as those observed for usual eating practices , were expected, as the oblique rotation ( Allen, 2017 ), which was used for the final rotation, has an assumption that the factors are linked. The three strongest intercorrelations were detected among performance , nutritional attributes of

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Christine E. Dziedzic and Dean G. Higham

Rugby sevens is an abbreviated version of rugby union, played by teams of seven players over 7-min halves. International competitions are usually played in a tournament format. While shorter in duration, the movement demands of rugby sevens per min of match time are greater than rugby union, resulting in an accentuated load on players. This load can be repeated up to six times over a typical 2- or 3-day competition period. The potential cumulative effect of inadequate carbohydrate, protein and/or fluid intake over the course of a tournament is the greatest nutrition-related concern for players. Nutritional strategies before and during competition are suggested to replenish substrate stores, maintain fluid balance and promote recovery between matches. The use of ergogenic aids known to enhance intermittent, high-intensity activity and/or the execution of motor skills may be advantageous to rugby sevens performance and is discussed. This review provides a best-practice model of nutritional support for international rugby sevens competition based on our current understanding of the sport combined with pragmatic guidelines and considerations for the practitioner.

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Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon and Louise M. Burke

Athletes are exposed to numerous nutritional products, attractively marketed with claims of optimizing health, function, and performance. However, there is limited evidence to support many of these claims, and the efficacy and safety of many products is questionable. The variety of nutritional aids considered for use by track-and-field athletes includes sports foods, performance supplements, and therapeutic nutritional aids. Support for sports foods and five evidence-based performance supplements (caffeine, creatine, nitrate/beetroot juice, β-alanine, and bicarbonate) varies according to the event, the specific scenario of use, and the individual athlete’s goals and responsiveness. Specific challenges include developing protocols to manage repeated use of performance supplements in multievent or heat-final competitions or the interaction between several products which are used concurrently. Potential disadvantages of supplement use include expense, false expectancy, and the risk of ingesting banned substances sometimes present as contaminants. However, a pragmatic approach to the decision-making process for supplement use is recommended. The authors conclude that it is pertinent for sports foods and nutritional supplements to be considered only where a strong evidence base supports their use as safe, legal, and effective and that such supplements are trialed thoroughly by the individual before committing to use in a competition setting.

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Louise Capling, Janelle A. Gifford, Kathryn L. Beck, Victoria M. Flood, Gary J. Slater, Gareth S. Denyer and Helen T. O’Connor

they’re avoiding certain foods.” G1-B  Influence on usual intake “Half the time they’re either travelling or they’re at a tournament so they’re not eating anything like what they normally would and they’re also training much less.” G3-C Section B: Performance nutrition  Stage of training “Phase of

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Chelsey Klimek, Christopher Ashbeck, Alexander J. Brook and Chris Durall

varied, high-intensity functional movements that fall into 3 categories: gymnastics, Olympic weightlifting, and cardiovascular training. The RAW program consists of 4 components: functional fitness, performance nutrition, sports medicine, and mental toughness. Respondents were actively involved or had

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Christopher Rosimus

. Although modest weight loss might seem a simple goal for many athletes, achieving it within an integrated approach to performance nutrition can be a surprisingly difficult task that is best undertaken with expert counseling and support. This case history demonstrates some of challenges and issues that can

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Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

·day −1 ), but still need to be strategically implemented around training and competition to support performance. Nutrition Strategies to Support Training Adaptations for Throwers Olympic throwers typically train 2–4 h/day, 5–6 days/week. Their workouts tend to include both a throwing session and a

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Hanan A. Alfawaz, Soundararajan Krishnaswamy, Latifah Al-Faifi, Halima Ali Bin Atta, Mohammad Al-Shayaa, Saad A. Alghanim and Nasser M. Al-Daghri

.E. , Laguale , K.M. , Carlsonm-Phillips , A. , & National Athletic Trainers’ Association . ( 2013 ). National Athletic Trainers’ Association position statement: Evaluation of dietary supplements for performance nutrition . Journal of Athletic Training , 48 ( 1 ), 124 – 136 . PubMed doi:10

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Jason D. Vescovi and Greig Watson

-015-0395-7 Shirreffs , S.M. ( 2005 ). The importance of good hydration for work and exercise performance . Nutrition Reviews, 63 ( 6, Pt. 2 ), S14 – S21 . PubMed ID: 16028568 doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2005.tb00149.x 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2005.tb00149.x Shirreffs , S.M. , Aragon-Vargas , L.F. , Chamorro , M

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Kelsey Dow, Robert Pritchett, Karen Roemer and Kelly Pritchett

-electrolyte beverage . Applied Physiology, Nutrition & Metabolism, 39 ( 12 ), 1366 – 1372 . doi:10.1139/apnm-2014-0174 10.1139/apnm-2014-0174 Dziedzic , C.E. , & Higham , D.G. ( 2014 ). Performance nutrition guidelines for international rugby sevens tournaments . International Journal of Sport Nutrition