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Matthew I. Black, Joseph C. Handsaker, Sam J. Allen, Stephanie E. Forrester and Jonathan P. Folland

differences in the performance standards of runners. The relationship between speed and running economy is highly equivocal, 5 with reports that running is more 6 , 7 and less 8 energetically expensive as a function of speed. These conflicting findings may in part be due to the relatively small range of

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Rosaland Edwards

The effect of individual performance standards on the relationship between selected process variables and achievement for students in elementary physical education classes is investigated. The subjects were 78 fourth-grade and 80 fifth-grade students from eight classes in two elementary schools. Two fourth grades and 2 fifth grades received standards, and 2 fourth grades and 2 fifth grades did not. A 1-week experimental teaching unit was used. A Solomon 4-group design was used to determine if there was a pretest effect. The data were analyzed in a Treatment (standard-no standard) × Pre (pretest-no pretest) × Sex × Grade MANOVA using posttest and motor-appropriate trials as the dependent measures; this analysis was followed up by two separate ANOVAs. Correlation was used to determine the relationship, if any, between behavior patterns and performance. The treatment group performed better than the control group, boys performed better than girls, and fifth graders performed better than fourth graders. Individuals with standards performed significantly better than those with no standards. The Pre × Treatment interaction suggested that having a pretest tends to standardize the amount of practice an individual takes. There was a positive relationship between motor-appropriate practice and performance regardless of treatment group. These data suggest that performance can be improved by individual performance standards and that care should be taken in using pre- and posttest methods for testing motor skills.

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Patricia M. Kelshaw, Trenton E. Gould, Mark Jesunathadas, Nelson Cortes, Amanda Caswell, Elizabeth D. Edwards and Shane V. Caswell

imparted to the head. In response to the growing apprehension about head injury in girls’ lacrosse, rules allowing for the use of soft-shell headgear meeting the ASTM International (ASTM) F3137 performance standard 11 have been adopted as of January 1, 2017. 8 This standard calls for a laboratory

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Denise M. Hill, Matthew Cheesbrough, Paul Gorczynski and Nic Matthews

While discussions regarding the definition and conceptualization of choking in sport continue (see Mesagno, Geukes, & Larkin, 2015 ; Mesagno & Hill, 2013 ), athletes normally identify a choking event as a dramatic, catastrophic, and acute decline in performance standards while under high levels

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Vaithehy Shanmugam, Sophia Jowett and Caroline Meyer

The purpose of this study was twofold: to explore the utility of components related to the transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral model of eating disorders within an athletic population and to investigate the extent to which the model can be applied across gender, sport type, and performance standard to explain eating psychopathology. Five hundred and eighty-eight (N = 588) male and female British athletes completed a battery of self-report instruments related to eating psychopathology, interpersonal diffculties, perfectionism, self-esteem, and mood. Structural equation modeling revealed that eating psychopathology may arise from an interaction of interpersonal diffculties, low self-esteem, high levels of self-critical perfectionism, and depressive symptoms. Analysis further highlighted that the manner in which eating psychopathology may arise is invariant across athletes’ sport type and performance standard, but not across gender. The current findings suggest that the tested components of the transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral model are pertinent and useful in explaining eating psychopathology among athletes.

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Denise M. Hill, Nic Matthews and Ruth Senior

This study used qualitative methods to explore the stressors, appraisal mechanism, emotional response, and effective/ineffective coping strategies experienced by elite rugby union referees during pressurized performances. Participants included seven male rugby union referees from the United Kingdom (Mage = 27.85, SD = 4.56) who had been officiating as full-time professionals for between 1 and 16 years (M = 4.85, SD = 5.42). Data revealed that the referees encountered a number of stressors, which were appraised initially as a ‘threat’, and elicited negatively-toned emotions. The referees were able to maintain performance standards under pressure by adopting proactive, problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies which managed effectively the stressors and their emotions. However, the use of avoidance-coping, reactive control, and informal impression management were perceived as ineffective coping strategies, and associated with poor performance and choking. Recommendations are offered to inform the psychological skills training of rugby union referees.

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Leslie Podlog, Sophie M. Banham, Ross Wadey and James C. Hannon

The purpose of this study was to examine athlete experiences and understandings of psychological readiness to return to sport following a serious injury. A focus group and follow-up semistructured interviews were conducted with seven English athletes representing a variety of sports. Three key attributes of readiness were identified including: (a) confidence in returning to sport; (b) realistic expectations of one’s sporting capabilities; and (c) motivation to regain previous performance standards. Numerous precursors such as trust in rehabilitation providers, accepting postinjury limitations, and feeling wanted by significant others were articulated. Results indicate that psychological readiness is a dynamic, psychosocial process comprised of three dimensions that increase athletes’ perceived likelihood of a successful return to sport following injury. Findings are discussed in relation to previous research and practical implications are offered.

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C. Jessie Jones, Carter Rakovski, Dana Rutledge and Angela Gutierrez


To compare fitness of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) aged 50+ with performance standards associated with functional independence in late life.


Data came from a longitudinal study tracking physical and cognitive function of 93 women with FMS and included the most recent symptoms, activity levels, and fitness assessments.


Most women performed below criterion-referenced fitness standards for all measures. Nearly 90% percent of those < 70 years scored below the standard for lower body strength. Only ~20% of respondents < 70 years old met the criteria for aerobic endurance. A third of those aged over 70 met the standard in agility and dynamic balance. Physical activity was positively associated with fitness performance, while pain and depression symptoms were negatively associated.


High proportions of women with FMS do not meet fitness standards recommended for maintaining physical independence in late life, indicating a risk for disability. Regular fitness assessments and targeted exercise interventions are warranted.

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Damon Burton

Sport psychologists believe that contemporary sport’s pervasive preoccupation with winning may actually be responsible for athletes’ anxiety, motivation, and self-confidence problems. Winning is a goal that lacks the flexibility and control necessary for athletes to (a) achieve consistent success and (b) take credit for success. Martens and Burton (1982) concluded that performance goals (PGs) based on attaining personal performance standards offer the flexibility and control needed to develop high perceived ability and performance. Thus the purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to evaluate whether a goal setting training (GST) program could teach athletes to set appropriate PGs, and (b) to assess the impact of the GST program on the perceived ability, competitive cognitions, and performance of collegiate swimmers. A collegiate swim team (N=30) participated in a season-long GST program, and program effects were systematically evaluated with a multimethod approach using interteam, intrateam, and case study data. Interteam and case study data generally supported both predictions. Intrateam analyses revealed that high-accuracy GST swimmers demonstrated more optimal cognitions and performance than low-accuracy teammates, suggesting that goal setting skill mediated GST effectiveness.

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Angie L.I. Cradock, Emily M. O'Donnell, Sara E. Benjamin, Elizabeth Walker and Meghan Slining


As interventions increasingly emphasize early child care settings, it is necessary to understand the state regulatory context that provides guidelines for outdoor physical activity and safety and sets standards for child care environments.


Researchers reviewed regulations for child care facilities for 50 states, the District of Columbia and the Virgin Islands. We compared state regulations with national standards for 17 physical activity- and safety-related items for outdoor playground settings outlined in Caring for Our Children: National Health and Safety Performance Standards: Guidelines for Out-of-Home Child Care Programs (CFOC). State regulations were coded as fully, partially or not addressing the CFOC standard and state-level summary scores were calculated.


On average, state regulations fully addressed one-third of 17 CFOC standards in regulations for centers (34%) and family child care homes (27%). Data suggest insufficient attention to outdoor play area proximity and size, equipment height, surfacing, and inspections.


Considerable variation exists among state regulations related to physical activity promotion and injury prevention within outdoor play areas. Many states' regulations do not comply with published national health and safety standards. Enhancing regulations is one component of a policy approach to promoting safe, physically active child care settings.