determine if ankle joint angles in the primary plane of motion differ between the braced and no-braced conditions at certain points in the functional performance tests. Methods Participants Twenty participants (11 females and 9 males; 20.6 [1.62] y, 1.77 [0.09] m, 74.75 [14.44] kg) who were involved in at
Brittany Mann, Allison H. Gruber, Shane P. Murphy, and Carrie L. Docherty
Jason Brumitt, Alma Mattocks, Jeremy Loew, and Phil Lentz
an individualized injury prevention training program. A recent trend in sport science research is to prospectively evaluate the effectiveness of functional performance tests (FPTs) to discriminate injury risk in a population of athletes. 9 – 13 The aforementioned prospective cohort studies have
Farid Farhani, Hamid Rajabi, Raoof Negaresh, Ajmol Ali, Sadegh Amani Shalamzari, and Julien S. Baker
Wingate anaerobic test was performed, and in sessions 2 and 3, the futsal special performance test (FSPT) was undertaken. The temperature and humidity of the research site were kept constant between 18°C and 21°C, and between 50% and 65%, respectively. All tests were carried out between 4:00 and 6:00 PM
Nicholas C. Clark and Elaine M. Mullally
-leg landings, and 46.2% occur during double-leg landings. 10 Single-leg functional performance tests (FPTs), such as leap and hop tests, are construct valid 21 , 22 and ecologically valid 17 , 23 assessment tools relative to high-impact loading during single-leg landing tasks. Single-leg FPTs recreate the
Nikki A. Jeacocke and Louise M. Burke
When testing is undertaken to monitor an athlete’s progress toward competition goals or the effect of an intervention on athletic outcomes, sport scientists should aim to minimize extraneous variables that influence the reliability, sensitivity, or validity of performance measurement. Dietary preparation is known to influence metabolism and exercise performance. Few studies, however, systematically investigate the outcomes of protocols that acutely control or standardize dietary intake in the hours and days before a performance trial. This review discusses the nutrients and dietary components that should be standardized before performance testing and reviews current approaches to achieving this. The replication of habitual diet or dietary practices, using tools such as food diaries or dietary recalls to aid compliance and monitoring, is a common strategy, and the use of education aids to help athletes achieve dietary targets offers a similarly low burden on the researcher. However, examination of dietary intake from real-life examples of these protocols reveals large variability between and within participants. Providing participants with prepackaged diets reduces this variability but can increase the burden on participants, as well as the researcher. Until studies can better quantify the effect of different protocols of dietary standardization on performance testing, sport scientists can only use a crude cost–benefit analysis to choose the protocols they implement. At the least, study reports should provide a more comprehensive description of the dietary-standardization protocols used in the research and the effect of these on the dietary intake of participants during the period of interest.
Jeffrey B. Taylor, Alexis A. Wright, James M. Smoliga, J. Tyler DePew, and Eric J. Hegedus
Physical-performance tests (PPTs) are commonly used in rehabilitation and injury-prevention settings, yet normative values of upper-extremity PPTs have not been established in high-level athletes.
To establish normative data values for the Closed Kinetic Chain Upper-Extremity Stability Test (CKCUEST) and Upper-Quarter Y-Balance Test (UQYBT) in college athletes and compare results between sports and to analyze the relationship between the 2 tests.
257 (118 male, 139 female) Division I athletes participating in basketball, soccer, baseball, lacrosse, volleyball, track and field, and cross-country.
CKCUEST and UQYBT scores were recorded as part of a comprehensive injury-risk screening battery.
Main Outcome Measure:
Pearson correlations assessed the relationship between all measures of the CKCUEST and UQYBT. A factorial ANOVA and a repeated-measures ANOVA (arm dominance) were used to assess interactions between sex, year in school, and sport for CKCUEST and UQYBT scores.
Normative values for the CKCUEST and UQYBT were established for 9 men’s and women’s college sports. No significant relationships were found between PPT scores. Men scored significantly higher than women for the CKCUEST (P = .002) and UQYBT (P = .010). Baseball players scored significantly higher than athletes from all other sports for the UQYBT (P < .001) but showed nonsignificant trends of lower scores for the CKCUEST than lower-extremity-dominant athletes such as runners (P = .063) and lacrosse players (P = .058).
Results suggest that average CKCUEST and UQYBT scores in Division I athletes are distinct from those previously reported in recreationally active populations and that performance differences exist between sexes and sports. In addition, the CKCUEST and UQYBT appear to measure different constructs of performance and may complement each other as part of a screening battery.
Ching-Yi Wang, Sharon L. Olson, and Elizabeth J. Protas
The purposes of this study were to evaluate community-dwelling elderly adults with different levels of perceived mobility with 5 physical-performance tests, determine the cutoff values of the 5 tests, and identify the best tests for classifying mobility status. The community-mobility statuses of 203 community-dwelling elders were classified as able, decreased, or disabled based on their self-reported ability to walk several blocks and climb stairs. They also performed the functional reach, timed 50-ft walk, timed 5-step, timed floor transfer, and 5-min-walk endurance tests. We found in all tests that the “able” outperformed the “decreased” and that the “decreased” outperformed the “disabled,” except on the floor-transfer task. The optimum cutoff values of the 5 performance tests were also reported. The 5-min walk and timed 5-step test could best separate the “able” from the “decreased,” whereas the 50-ft-walk-test could best differentiate the “decreased” from the “disabled.” The results suggest that community-mobility function of older adults can be captured by performance tests and that the cutoff values of the 5-min-walk, 5-step, and 50-ft-walk tests can be used in guiding intervention or prevention programs.
Matthew W. Driller, Christos K. Argus, Jason C. Bartram, Jacinta Bonaventura, David T. Martin, Nicholas P. West, and Shona L. Halson
To determine the intraday and interday reliability of a 2 × 4-min performance test on a cycle ergometer (Wattbike) separated by 30 min of passive recovery (2 × 4MMP).
Twelve highly trained cyclists (mean ± SD; age = 20 ± 2 y, predicted VO2max = 59.0 ± 3.6 mL · kg−1 · min−1) completed six 2 × 4MMP cycling tests on a Wattbike ergometer separated by 7 d. Mean power was measured to determine intraday (test 1 [T1] to test 2 [T2]) and interday reliability (weeks 1–6) over the repeated trials.
The mean intraday reliabilities of the 2 × 4MMP test, as expressed by the typical error of measurement (TEM, W) and coefficient of variation (CV, %) over the 6 wk, were 10.0 W (95% confidence limits [CL] 8.2–11.8), and 2.6% (95%CL 2.1–3.1), respectively. The mean interday reliability TEM and CV for T1 over the 6 wk were 10.4 W (95%CL 8.7–13.3) and 2.7% (95%CL 2.3–3.5), respectively, and 11.7 W (95%CL 9.8–15.1) and 3.0% (95%CL 2.5–3.9) for T2.
The testing protocol performed on a Wattbike cycle ergometer in the current study is reproducible in highly trained cyclists. The high intraday and interday reliability make it a reliable method for monitoring cycling performance and for investigating factors that affect performance in cycling events.
Hee Sik Kim and Kiyoji Tanaka
The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which a battery of 24 activities of daily living (ADL) performance tasks could be used to determine functional age in a sample of older women. The subjects were 253 older adult Korean women, aged 60 to 91 years. All subjects completed a comprehensive battery of 24 performance tests related to common activities of daily living. Correlations between the measures were computed, and principal component analysis was applied to the 24 × 24 correlation matrix. A principal component score was computed for each subject and was found to decrease significantly with advancing age. Multiple regression analysis revealed that out of the initial 24 variables, 5 variables accounted for 81% of the variability. An equation was developed to determine ADL age; the equation was considered useful for the assessment of daily living activities of older adult Korean women.
Claire J. Brady, Andrew J. Harrison, Eamonn P. Flanagan, G. Gregory Haff, and Thomas M. Comyns
research has been conducted in the ISqT on variables other than PF, such as RFD (sampling windows), pRFD, and impulse. Once a performance test is determined reliable, the smallest worthwhile change (SWC) should be calculated. Hopkins 9 suggests using the TE alongside the SWC to allow practitioners to make