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Brittany Mann, Allison H. Gruber, Shane P. Murphy and Carrie L. Docherty

determine if ankle joint angles in the primary plane of motion differ between the braced and no-braced conditions at certain points in the functional performance tests. Methods Participants Twenty participants (11 females and 9 males; 20.6 [1.62] y, 1.77 [0.09] m, 74.75 [14.44] kg) who were involved in at

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Jason Brumitt, Alma Mattocks, Jeremy Loew and Phil Lentz

an individualized injury prevention training program. A recent trend in sport science research is to prospectively evaluate the effectiveness of functional performance tests (FPTs) to discriminate injury risk in a population of athletes. 9 – 13 The aforementioned prospective cohort studies have

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Farid Farhani, Hamid Rajabi, Raoof Negaresh, Ajmol Ali, Sadegh Amani Shalamzari and Julien S. Baker

Wingate anaerobic test was performed, and in sessions 2 and 3, the futsal special performance test (FSPT) was undertaken. The temperature and humidity of the research site were kept constant between 18°C and 21°C, and between 50% and 65%, respectively. All tests were carried out between 4:00 and 6:00 PM

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Nikki A. Jeacocke and Louise M. Burke

When testing is undertaken to monitor an athlete’s progress toward competition goals or the effect of an intervention on athletic outcomes, sport scientists should aim to minimize extraneous variables that influence the reliability, sensitivity, or validity of performance measurement. Dietary preparation is known to influence metabolism and exercise performance. Few studies, however, systematically investigate the outcomes of protocols that acutely control or standardize dietary intake in the hours and days before a performance trial. This review discusses the nutrients and dietary components that should be standardized before performance testing and reviews current approaches to achieving this. The replication of habitual diet or dietary practices, using tools such as food diaries or dietary recalls to aid compliance and monitoring, is a common strategy, and the use of education aids to help athletes achieve dietary targets offers a similarly low burden on the researcher. However, examination of dietary intake from real-life examples of these protocols reveals large variability between and within participants. Providing participants with prepackaged diets reduces this variability but can increase the burden on participants, as well as the researcher. Until studies can better quantify the effect of different protocols of dietary standardization on performance testing, sport scientists can only use a crude cost–benefit analysis to choose the protocols they implement. At the least, study reports should provide a more comprehensive description of the dietary-standardization protocols used in the research and the effect of these on the dietary intake of participants during the period of interest.

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Jeffrey B. Taylor, Alexis A. Wright, James M. Smoliga, J. Tyler DePew and Eric J. Hegedus

Context:

Physical-performance tests (PPTs) are commonly used in rehabilitation and injury-prevention settings, yet normative values of upper-extremity PPTs have not been established in high-level athletes.

Objective:

To establish normative data values for the Closed Kinetic Chain Upper-Extremity Stability Test (CKCUEST) and Upper-Quarter Y-Balance Test (UQYBT) in college athletes and compare results between sports and to analyze the relationship between the 2 tests.

Design:

Observational.

Setting:

Laboratory/athletic facility.

Participants:

257 (118 male, 139 female) Division I athletes participating in basketball, soccer, baseball, lacrosse, volleyball, track and field, and cross-country.

Intervention:

CKCUEST and UQYBT scores were recorded as part of a comprehensive injury-risk screening battery.

Main Outcome Measure:

Pearson correlations assessed the relationship between all measures of the CKCUEST and UQYBT. A factorial ANOVA and a repeated-measures ANOVA (arm dominance) were used to assess interactions between sex, year in school, and sport for CKCUEST and UQYBT scores.

Results:

Normative values for the CKCUEST and UQYBT were established for 9 men’s and women’s college sports. No significant relationships were found between PPT scores. Men scored significantly higher than women for the CKCUEST (P = .002) and UQYBT (P = .010). Baseball players scored significantly higher than athletes from all other sports for the UQYBT (P < .001) but showed nonsignificant trends of lower scores for the CKCUEST than lower-extremity-dominant athletes such as runners (P = .063) and lacrosse players (P = .058).

Conclusions:

Results suggest that average CKCUEST and UQYBT scores in Division I athletes are distinct from those previously reported in recreationally active populations and that performance differences exist between sexes and sports. In addition, the CKCUEST and UQYBT appear to measure different constructs of performance and may complement each other as part of a screening battery.

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Yoshiko Hasebe, Yoshie Tanabe and Kazunori Yasuda

Context:

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with doubled hamstring autograft might not sufficiently improve fundamental sports abilities of patients with ACL-deficient knees.

Objective:

To clarify whether ACL reconstruction using the hamstring graft can improve fundamental sports abilities.

Design:

Patients were examined twice, preoperatively and 2 years postoperatively, using the conventional evaluation scales and performance tests.

Participants:

15 athletic patients with ACL reconstruction using hamstring autograft.

Measurements:

A stairs-run test and figure-8 one-leg hop test. Muscle strength and knee stability were measured with Cybex® II and KT-2000® arthrometers, respectively.

Results:

There were no significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative results in the performance tests. The degree of postoperative recovery in the subjective score, the anterior translation of the tibia, and the isokinetic muscle strength was not significantly correlated with the degree of restoration in each performance test.

Conclusions:

Postoperative restoration as measured by conventional evaluation scales is not correlated with restoration of sports abilities in patients with ACL insufficiency.

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Ching-Yi Wang, Sharon L. Olson and Elizabeth J. Protas

The purposes of this study were to evaluate community-dwelling elderly adults with different levels of perceived mobility with 5 physical-performance tests, determine the cutoff values of the 5 tests, and identify the best tests for classifying mobility status. The community-mobility statuses of 203 community-dwelling elders were classified as able, decreased, or disabled based on their self-reported ability to walk several blocks and climb stairs. They also performed the functional reach, timed 50-ft walk, timed 5-step, timed floor transfer, and 5-min-walk endurance tests. We found in all tests that the “able” outperformed the “decreased” and that the “decreased” outperformed the “disabled,” except on the floor-transfer task. The optimum cutoff values of the 5 performance tests were also reported. The 5-min walk and timed 5-step test could best separate the “able” from the “decreased,” whereas the 50-ft-walk-test could best differentiate the “decreased” from the “disabled.” The results suggest that community-mobility function of older adults can be captured by performance tests and that the cutoff values of the 5-min-walk, 5-step, and 50-ft-walk tests can be used in guiding intervention or prevention programs.

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Hee Sik Kim and Kiyoji Tanaka

The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which a battery of 24 activities of daily living (ADL) performance tasks could be used to determine functional age in a sample of older women. The subjects were 253 older adult Korean women, aged 60 to 91 years. All subjects completed a comprehensive battery of 24 performance tests related to common activities of daily living. Correlations between the measures were computed, and principal component analysis was applied to the 24 × 24 correlation matrix. A principal component score was computed for each subject and was found to decrease significantly with advancing age. Multiple regression analysis revealed that out of the initial 24 variables, 5 variables accounted for 81% of the variability. An equation was developed to determine ADL age; the equation was considered useful for the assessment of daily living activities of older adult Korean women.

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Jo Welsman

gleaned from longitudinal studies, breath by breath studies of oxygen uptake kinetics, and magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopic techniques supported by allometric and multilevel regression modeling, we assumed (naively it transpires) that field performance tests would gradually recede from use in

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Joshua M. Drouin and Bryan L. Riemann

Column-editor : Carl G. Mattacola