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IOC Consensus Statement: Dietary Supplements and the High-Performance Athlete

Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener, and Lars Engebretsen

similar prevalence is likely in many other countries. Athletes describe a range of different reasons for their supplement choices ( Fennell, 2004 ), and products that fit the description of “supplement” can target various roles within the athlete’s performance plan. These include the maintenance of good

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Erratum. Match Running Performance in Australian Football Is Related to Muscle Fiber Typology

International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

TO OUR READERS: An error appeared in the ahead-of-print version of the following article: Hopwood HJ, Bellinger PM, Compton HR, Bourne MN, Derave W, Lievens E, Kennedy B, Minahan CL. Match Running Performance in Australian Football Is Related to Muscle Fiber Typology. Int J Sports Physiol Perform

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Erratum. Determinants of 1500-m Front-Crawl Swimming Performance in Triathletes: Influence of Physiological and Biomechanical Variables

International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

TO OUR READERS: An error appeared in the ahead-of-print version of the following article: López-Belmonte Ó, Ruiz-Navarro JJ, Gay A, Cuenca-Fernández F, Cejuela R, Arellano R. Determinants of 1500-m front-crawl swimming performance in triathletes: influence of physiological and biomechanical

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Higher- Versus Lower-Intensity Strength-Training Taper: Effects on Neuromuscular Performance

Hayden J. Pritchard, Matthew J. Barnes, Robin J. Stewart, Justin W. Keogh, and Michael R. McGuigan

The primary objective of a taper is to minimize fatigue from training and allow for expression of improved fitness in order to maximize performance at a specific time point. 1 , 2 Reductions in training load typically define the taper, achieved primarily through alterations in training volume but

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The Effects of Overt Head Movements on Physical Performance After Positive Versus Negative Self-Talk

Javier Horcajo, Borja Paredes, Guillermo Higuero, Pablo Briñol, and Richard E. Petty

found that what athletes say to themselves through self-talk influences their performance in sports settings. For example, self-talk has been shown to affect the learning of sport skills, the performance of sport accuracy tasks, the performance of tasks that involve strength and power, the performance

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Getting Angry When Playing Tennis: Gender Differences and Impact on Performance

Maria Grazia Monaci and Francesca Veronesi

in turn may trigger aggressive behaviors linked to feelings of anger more frequently than in other disciplines. With these premises, the aim of the present study was to investigate gender differences in anger experience, expression and control and the anger-performance relationship in tennis players

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Efficacy of Cold Water Immersion Prior to Endurance Cycling or Running to Increase Performance: A Critically Appraised Topic

Connor A. Burton and Christine A. Lauber

endurance performance in hot, humid environments. Consequently, as the peripheral vasculature vasodilates in an effort to move heat out of the body, there is a lack of blood in the central part of the body. This physiologic reaction results in an increased heart rate and a simultaneous reduction in stroke

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Buoyancy, Gender, and Swimming Performance

Scott P. McLean and Richard N. Hinrichs

This study investigated the relationship of gender and buoyancy to sprint swimming performance. The center of buoyancy (CB) and center of mass (CM) were measured using reaction board principles. Performance was evaluated as the time needed to complete the middle 13.7 m of a 22.9-m sprint for kicking and swimming trials. Nineteen female swimmers (mean ± SD, 21.9 ± 3.2 years) had significantly more body fat (24.1 ± 4.5%) than 13 male swimmers (21.7 ± 4.2 years, 14.8 ± 5.0%). Males swam and kicked significantly faster (p < .01) than females. Percent body fat, upper body strength, the distance between the CB and CM (d), and the buoyant force measured in 3 body positions all met the criteria for entrance into a regression equation. When gender was not controlled in the analysis, these variables accounted for 70% of the variance in swim time (p < .008). When gender was controlled in the analysis, these variables accounted for 45% of the variance in swim time (p = .06). Percent body fat accounted for the largest amount variance in both regression analyses (39%, p < .001; 18%, p = 0.02, respectively). Upper body strength accounted for 14% of the variance in swim time (p = .006) when gender was not controlled but only 4% when gender was controlled (p = .27). The distance d as measured in a body position with both arms raised above the head was the buoyancy factor that accounted for the greatest amount of variance in swim time (6% when gender was not controlled, p = .06, 10%; when gender was controlled, p = .07). Percent body fat, d, and the buoyant force accounted for no significant amount of variance in kick time. These data suggested that a swimmer’s buoyancy characteristics did have a small but important influence on sprint swimming performance.

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Preparing for Performance: Strategies Adopted Across Performance Domains

Stewart Cotterill

The ability to prepare effectively to execute complex skills under pressure is crucial in a number of performance-focused professions. While there is emerging evidence of best practice little research has sought to compare preparation strategies across professions. As a result, the aim of this research was to explore the approaches employed within a number of professions and whether there are similarities in the techniques and strategies adopted. Participants were 18 “performers,” purposefully selected from sporting, musical, performing arts, and medical domains. Participants were interviewed individually to gain an understanding of each participant’s preparation strategies and the functions these strategies fulfilled. The data were thematically analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results suggest that there are similarities in both behavioral and mental strategies adopted across professions. Future research should seek to explore the transferability of developmental approaches.

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High Performance Coaches’ Mental Health and Wellbeing: Applying the Areas of Work Life Model

Fraser Carson, Julia Walsh, Luana C. Main, and Peter Kremer

High performance coaches work in an ill-defined, dynamic environment where they constantly evaluate, problem solve, and create change ( Thelwell, Weston, Greenlees, & Hutchings, 2008 ). It is a unique workplace where challenge, stress and unpredictability are unavoidable ( Mallett & Côté, 2006