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John W. Mahoney, Daniel F. Gucciardi, Clifford J. Mallett, and Nikos Ntoumanis

In light of the extant literature, the aim of the current study was to compare adolescents’ perspectives on mental toughness and its development across performance contexts, and to explore if such perspectives align with Bronfenbrenner’s (2001) bioecological model. Eighteen mentally tough adolescents (9 boys, 9 girls, Mage = 15.6 years) from three performance contexts (i.e., sport, academia, and music) participated in focus groups, 7 of whom also participated in follow-up one-to-one interviews. Inductive analyses revealed that mental toughness was conceptualized by 9 personal characteristics, and that while similar across performance contexts, some difference between previous mental toughness conceptualization and the current study existed. Analyses also revealed that mental toughness development was predicated on significant others, supportive social processes, critical incidents, and curiosity. These findings resonated with the properties of the bioecological model. Future research into how bioecological factors combine to facilitate mental toughness development during critical stages of life was suggested.

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Fernando Santos, Nuno Corte-Real, Leonor Regueiras, Leisha Strachan, Cláudia Dias, and António Fonseca

Over the last decades positive development (PD) has served as a framework for several investigations within the sport science community. In fact, multiple researchers have analyzed youth coaches’ role in PD. However, there is recent interest in exploring high performance coaching due to the complexity of the coaching practice, the different developmental needs presented by players, and the relevance of PD within this particular environment. The purpose of this study was to understand the perspectives of Portuguese football coaches about the importance of PD in high performance coaching. The participants in the study were ten male Portuguese football coaches who trained athletes between the ages of 16 and 39 years of age. Findings showed that coaches viewed winning and on field performance as top priorities in their coaching philosophy, but recognized the importance of PD. Coaches also envisioned the determinant role youth coaches have in this domain. Coaches conceptualized PD as an overarching framework that could be used across the developmental spectrum to convey a range of PD outcomes in high performance contexts such as teamwork, respect for others and transfer to other life domains. Moving forward, coach education courses should help coaches develop strategies to foster PD.

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Athanasia Smirniotou, Flora Panteli, and Apostolos Theodorou

nature of an individual. A given performance context will have specific properties that shape individual intentions and performances ( Brymer & Renshaw, 2010 ). The continuous interaction of the unique individual constraints with those of the task and performance environment ( Davids et al., 2005

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Shuge Zhang, Ross Roberts, Tim Woodman, and Andrew Cooke

different performance contexts vary in the opportunity for them to gain glory ( Roberts, Woodman, & Sedikides, 2018 ). In a series of studies, for example, Wallace and Baumeister ( 2002 ) found that individuals high in narcissism improved performance more than those low in narcissism only when perceived

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David Price, Christopher R.D. Wagstaff, and Richard C. Thelwell

-based and acceptance-based interventions in sport and performance contexts . Current Opinion in Psychology, 16, 180 – 184 . 10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.06.001 Haberl , P. , & McCann , S. ( 2012 ). Evaluating USOC sport psychology consultant effectiveness: A

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Chris Harwood, Lew Hardy, and Austin Swain

This article presents a critical analysis of the conceptualization and measurement of achievement goals in sport. It highlights conceptual and measurement inconsistencies of Nicholls’s (1984) achievement-goal theory in education with respect to its applicability to sport. It proposes that differentiation between ability and effort does not underpin the activation of task and ego goal perspectives in a sport performance context and that the definitions of task and ego involvement in the classroom might not generalize to sport. It offers an alternative conceptual approach incorporating three goal perspectives, as both a theoretical and a practical solution. It addresses goal involvement in sport performance contexts by emphasizing the value of assessing self-referent and normative conceptions of achievement at different time frames. Overall, this critique attempts to advance our understanding of both achievement goals and individual performers in the competitive sport domain.

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Justine J. Reel

treatment approaches to problems in sport, exercise, and performance contexts. Another option is a lessons learned paper that describes challenges and recommendations gleaned from implementing a program or intervention with athletes, exercisers, or performers. Papers may also use published research

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Kim Gammage, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf

disordered eating in athletes to promote early identification and treatment. However, sound clinical and psychometric-disordered eating instruments do not adequately capture the athletic experience or the performance context. The few existing athlete-specific tools have been criticized for lack of

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Johnpaul Caia, Shona L. Halson, Patrick M. Holmberg, and Vincent G. Kelly

therefore the meaningful application of the findings is relevant, particularly in high-performance contexts. Besides, to minimize disruption of players’ normal pregame preparation, measures of salivary caffeine concentration were limited to 2 time points. Ideally, additional sampling in the days prior to

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Edson Filho

team, the team as a whole, and the broader performance context ( Filho, 2019 ). In other words, individuals are nested within teams, which in turn are bounded to a specific performance context (e.g., military, sports). Previous research on SMM is extensive and has been reviewed in detail elsewhere (for