This case is based on a collection of real-life scenarios encountered by employees working for professional sport organizations. The workplace in this environment contains circumstances distinct to the sport context which this case aims to highlight. A small work group of three individuals with diverse backgrounds representing key departments in a professional basketball club are brought together to lead a difficult challenge in the community. Over the course of the season, several meetings and personal interactions play out which present difficulties in productivity due to individual differences in human relations capacity and varying psychological connections with the environment. In combination with the teaching notes, the case is designed to highlight (1) the special nature of employee identification in the professional sport setting, (2) an array of political skills which are relevant and useful to the sport workplace, and (3) the role of perceived personal control in sport organizations. An overview of theory and its specific application to the case is provided along with discussion questions and answers to aid instructors in effectively engaging with students around the topical areas.
Steve Swanson and Samuel Y. Todd
Kimberley J. Bartholomew, Nikos Ntoumanis and Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani
This article outlines the development and initial validation of the Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale (CCBS), a multidimensional self-report measure designed to assess sports coaches’ controlling interpersonal style from the perspective of self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002). Study 1 generated a pool of items, based on past literature and feedback from coaches, athletes, and academic experts. The factorial structure of the questionnaire was tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across Studies 2 and 3. The final CCBS model in Study 3 comprised 4 factors (controlling use of rewards, conditional regard, intimidation, and excessive personal control) and was cross-validated using a third independent sample in Study 4. The scale demonstrated good content and factorial validity, as well as internal consistency and invariance across gender and sport type. Suggestions for its use in research pertaining to the darker side of coaching and sport participation are discussed.
Melissa N. Galea Holmes, John A. Weinman and Lindsay M. Bearne
timeline (six items), a cyclical timeline (four items), consequences (six items), personal control (six items), treatment control (five items), coherence (five items), and emotion (six items) regarding PAD, which are evaluated on a 5-point scale (1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree ). Using the
Catherine M. Sabiston, Meghan H. McDonough and Peter R.E. Crocker
This study explored psychosocial experiences of breast cancer survivors involved in dragon boat programs. Twenty women (M age = 58.69, SD = 6.85) were interviewed for 45-60 min about their experiences as members of survivor dragon boat teams. Interviews were analyzed using constructivist grounded theory methods. The dragon boat program facilitated social support from women with common challenges and a shared understanding of survivorship. It also provided opportunities to (re)gain a sense of personal control, develop new identities as athletes, and overcome physical challenges. Together these elements contributed to positive psychological growth and linked to the literature on posttraumatic growth. Future physical activity interventions targeting breast cancer survivors may benefit from developing strategies that share key characteristics of dragon boating.
Christophe Gernigon and Jean-Baptiste Delloye
The influence of an unexpected outcome in a first sprint trial on athletes’ selfefficacy and performance, and the relationships between outcome, causal attribution, self-efficacy, and performance were examined. Sixty-two national level competition sprinters assessed self-efficacy, ran a first 60 m trial with manipulated time feedback (success vs. failure), expressed causal attributions, assessed self-efficacy again, and ran a second 60 m trial. Success and failure, respectively, increased and decreased self-efficacy. Stability of causes mediated the feedback, self-efficacy relation for males. Personal control predicted self-efficacy for females. Performance was not influenced by feedback but was weakly predicted by self-efficacy. This study sheds light on some of the cognitive and motivational processes that are involved in serial sports events.
Margaret Dupee, Tanya Forneris and Penny Werthner
The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived outcomes of a biofeedback and neurofeedback training intervention with high performance athletes. Five Olympic level athletes preparing for world championships and the 2012 Olympic Games took part in a 20 session intervention over the period of one year. At the completion of the intervention, a semistructured interview was conducted with each athlete. The athletes indicated that they became more self-aware, were better able to self-regulate both their physiological and psychological states, developed a greater sense of personal control, and a greater understanding of skills inherent in the field of sport psychology. Three of the athletes made the Canadian Olympic team for the 2012 Olympic Games and two of those athletes won bronze medals. The present study suggests that biofeedback and neurofeedback training may be useful in enabling athletes to perform optimally, in both training and competition, on a consistent basis.
Maureen R. Weiss, Vicki Ebbeck, Edward McAuley and Diane M. Wiese
This study explored the relationship between children's self-esteem and attributions for performance in both physical and social achievement domains. Children's physical and social self-esteem as well as perceptions of and attributions for performance and interpersonal success in a summer sports program were assessed. Multivariate analyses revealed a significant relationship between self-esteem and causal attributions for both physical and social domains. For physical competence, children high in self-esteem made attributions that were more internal, stable, and higher in personal control than did low self-esteem children. For social competence, children high in self-esteem made attributions that were more internal, stable, and higher in personal and lower in external control than did children low in self-esteem. These results provided support for a self-consistency approach to self-esteem.
Sofie Morbée, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Nathalie Aelterman and Leen Haerens
well via material rewards (i.e., controlling use of rewards); interfering in areas of athletes’ lives that are not directly associated with sports (i.e., excessive personal control); and withholding attention and appreciation if athletes fail to meet expectations (i.e., negative conditional regard
Summer Davis, Xihe Zhu and Justin Haegele
controllability including three statements each for personal control and external control to determine the control of the attribution. For causality and stability, scores ≥6 indicated an internal stable cause, and scores ≤4 indicated an external unstable cause. For controllability dimension, scores ≥6 for
Jules Woolf * Jess C. Dixon * B. Christine Green * Patrick J. Hill * 01 01 2019 8 S1 S21 S27 10.1123/cssm.2018-0034 cssm.2018-0034 CASE STUDY 5 Workplace Dynamics in Professional Sport: A Case Study of Identification, Political Skill, and Personal Control Steve Swanson * Samuel Y. Todd * 01