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Raphaël Laurin, Michel Nicolas, and David Lavallee

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a personal goal-based intervention on positive and negative moods among young athletes at a soccer academy. Study participants (N =22) were randomized into either a treatment group, which participated in a personal goal-management program (Bouffard, Labelle, Dubé, & Lapierre, 1999), or a neutral-task control group. Participants’ mood states were measured every 3 weeks. Results indicated significant postintervention group differences in positive and negative moods states, with the treatment group reporting higher levels of positive moods and lower levels of negative moods. A significant within-group difference over time was also found for the treatment group, indicating an increase in positive mood states and decrease in negative mood states as the program progressed. Findings from this study are used to inform recommendations for sport psychology interventions that use specific goal management procedures to facilitate positive emotional states among young athletes.

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Thomas D. Kane, Michelle A. Marks, Stephen J. Zaccaro, and Virginia Blair

Goal theory (Locke & Latham, 1990) and social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) converged on a single model describing the relationships among prior performance, self-efficacy, personal goals, and individual performance. The model, portraying self-regulatory processes, guided an investigation of the performance of 216 wrestlers competing at a wrestling camp. Two hypotheses were tested. First, general support was expected for the self-regulatory model. Second, self-efficacy was predicted to be especially relevant for performance under extremely competitive conditions (i.e., overtime match performance). Both hypotheses were supported. Analyses using LISREL VI supported the relationships posited by the self-regulatory model. Also, self-efficacy was found to be the only significant predictor of wrestlers’ performance in overtime matches.

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Yannis Theodorakis

The present study tested the effects of self-efficacy, past performance, personal goal setting, and self-satisfaction on swimming performance. Participants (N = 42) performed four trials of a specific swimming task with 10-min intervals between each trial. During the third and fourth trials they performed trials after setting personal goals and completing self-efficacy and selfsatisfaction scales. Results showed significant improvement in level of performance in these two trials. Past performance, self-efficacy, self-satisfaction, and personal goal setting were predictors of performance at the third and the fourth trial. A LISREL VI path analysis indicated that past performance was the main determinant of future performance. Personal goal setting was affected by level of past performance, as well as by perceived self-efficacy and satisfaction. In a second stage of analysis, past performance was eliminated, and results supported the mediating role of personal goals between self-efficacy and performance.

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Yannis Theodorakis, Parascevi Malliou, Athanasios Papaioannou, Anastasia Beneca, and Anastasia Filactakidou

This study examined the effect of goal setting on injury rehabilitation, specifically, differences in personal goal setting, self-efficacy, self-satisfaction, and performance between injured and noninjured subjects. Two experimental groups (32 women with knee injuries and 29 noninjured women) and one control group (n = 30) were used. Subjects performed four trials of a knee extension task on an isokinetic dynamometer. Prior to the third and fourth trials, subjects in the experimental groups set personal goals and completed self-efficacy and self-satisfaction scales. There were significant performance improvements for the two experimental groups; correlation coefficients between self-efficacy, self-satisfaction, goal setting, and performance were significant at the .001 level Personal goal setting was affected by level of ability and in turn had a direct effect on performance. Self-efficacy and self-satisfaction were affected by ability or performance but had no significant effect on personal goals or performance. The findings indicate that personal goal setting might be an important determinant for performance improvement in injury rehabilitation programs.

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Milla Saajanaho, Anne Viljanen, Sanna Read, Merja Rantakokko, Li-Tang Tsai, Jaakko Kaprio, Marja Jylhä, and Taina Rantanen

This study investigated the associations of personal goals with exercise activity, as well as the relationships between exercise-related and other personal goals, among older women. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs were used with a sample of 308 women ages 66–79 at baseline. Women who reported exercise-related personal goals were 4 times as likely to report high exercise activity at baseline than those who did not report exercise-related goals. Longitudinal results were parallel. Goals related to cultural activities, as well as to busying oneself around the home, coincided with exercise-related goals, whereas goals related to own and other people’s health and independent living lowered the odds of having exercise-related goals. Helping older adults to set realistic exercise-related goals that are compatible with their other life goals may yield an increase in their exercise activity, but this should be evaluated in a controlled trial.

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Joachim Stoeber, Mark A. Uphill, and Sarah Hotham

The question of how perfectionism affects performance is highly debated. Because empirical studies examining perfectionism and competitive sport performance are missing, the present research investigated how perfectionism affected race performance and what role athletes’ goals played in this relationship in two prospective studies with competitive triathletes (Study 1: N = 112; Study 2: N = 321). Regression analyses showed that perfectionistic personal standards, high performance-approach goals, low performance-avoidance goals, and high personal goals predicted race performance beyond athletes’ performance level. Moreover, the contrast between performance-avoidance and performance-approach goals mediated the relationship between perfectionistic personal standards and performance, whereas personal goal setting mediated the relationship between performance-approach goals and performance. The findings indicate that perfectionistic personal standards do not undermine competitive performance, but are associated with goals that help athletes achieve their best possible performance.

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Bart S. Lerner and Edwin A. Locke

This study investigated the effects of goal setting, self-efficacy, competition, and personality on the performance of a sit-up task. Prior to testing, participants were administered the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ; Gill & Deeter, 1988). Using a 2 × 2 + 1 design, 60 participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (a) competition, medium goal; (b) competition, high goal; (c) no competition, medium goal; and (d) no competition, high goal. A fifth group from the same population (n = 15) was added and served as the do-best comparison group. The main effect of goal level was borderline significant (p < .059), and this effect was fully mediated by personal goal level and self-efficacy. Also, both the medium and hard goal groups significantly outperformed the do-best group. Competition did not affect performance, personal goals, commitment, or self-efficacy. The SOQ was significantly related to performance, but its effects were fully mediated by personal goals and self-efficacy.

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Thomas D. Kane, Timothy R. Baltes, and Michael C. Moss

This research examined free-set goals (FS goals) reported by wrestling camp participants. FS goals are goals as stated by those who are simply asked to report personal goals within a defined context. Because goal content is free to vary and is defined by the athletes themselves, it is argued that FS goals underlie self-regulation in sport. Preseason, season, and long-term FS goals reported by wrestlers were coded for difficulty and specificity. Predictors and outcomes drawn from goal theory research were related to FS goals set for the upcoming season. Prior performance experiences predicted FS season goals, and FS season goals predicted performance outcomes collected after the wrestling season. Unique to goal theory, FS goal specificity was as strongly related to performance as was FS goal difficulty. Findings are discussed in relation to athletes’ self-regulation.

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Vellapandian Ponnusamy, Michelle Guerrero, and Jeffrey J. Martin

, & Suh, 1998 ; Triandis, 1995 ). For instance, individualistic societies, such as Canada, the United States, and Australia, value independence from others, prioritize personal goals and desires over group or collective concerns, and emphasize privacy, autonomy, and assertiveness. In contrast

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Tricia D. McGuire-Adams and Audrey R. Giles

methodological approaches that guided the data collection. Third, we present the three themes that emerged from the dibaajimowinan of the women: running as ceremony and healing; the significance of running as a group; and running for health and personal goals. Finally, we discuss the importance and implications