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Xihe Zhu, Senlin Chen and James Parrott

This study examined adolescents’ interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval, and completed two interest scales immediately after each test. Test performances, interest, and body mass index data were collected. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance/covariance, and hierarchical regression analyses. Student situational and personal interests were low-to-moderate overall in both aerobic fitness tests. Boys reported significantly higher situational interest than girls, but there was no gender difference in personal interest. Personal interest was a significant predictor for PACER (b=.27) and 1MR (b=-.37). The predictability of situational interest to testing performances varied between PACER and 1MR. PACER and 1MR might have rendered distinct motivational stimuli that led to the varied predicting power of situational interest.

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Bo Shen, Ang Chen, Hope Tolley and Kristin A. Scrabis

Guided by the interest-based motivation theory, this study examined the extent to which personal interest and situational interest accounted for boys’ and girls’ learning outcome in a middle school physical education dance unit. Personal and situational interests, physical activity intensity, and skill/knowledge outcome were measured in a random student sample (N = 57). Girls demonstrated higher personal interest in dance than the boys, but both groups were equally motivated with situational interest. Although the girls were not as physically active as boys, their skill/knowledge outcome measures were higher than those of the boys. It appears that gender may have little impact on the motivational effect of situational interest and that girls’ in-class learning might have higher quality than that of boys as a result of higher personal interest. The findings indicate that situational interest may motivate all students, but it is necessary to enhance personal interest in order for them to engage in quality learning.

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Ketra L. Armstrong

Sport is a social institution that is rife with raced and gendered discursive fields, creating structural and power relations that may influence the leadership experiences of Black women there-in. Tins study utilized the tenets of Black Feminist Thought as a foundation for examining the leadership experiences of a case selection of Black women (n=21) in community recreational sports. The results revealed that a personal interest in sport and an ethic of caring motivated the women’s involvement in the leadership of community recreation sports. Although the women reported barriers of gender inequity, racial discrimination, poor communication, lack of resources, and organizational constraints, they appeared to rely on their internal fortitude as a reservoir for resistance to combat the institutional challenges faced and have meaningful sport leadership experiences. The study illuminated the importance of individual consciousness to these women’s sense of self and their ability to resist the domination of the power and ideologies situated in their sport leadership settings.

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Dana M. Litt, Ronald J. Iannotti and Jing Wang


Motivating adolescents to maintain levels of physical activity (PA) is important because regular PA in adolescence contributes to physical, psychological, and social well-being and PA during adolescence has been associated with activity levels in adulthood.


The overall aim of this study is to validate a measure of external reward, health values, and personal interest motivations for adolescent PA developed by Wold and Kannas and to examine the relationship between these motivations and level of PA.


A nationally representative sample of 9011 adolescents completed the Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey instrument. Ten items were used to measure PA motivations. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were applied to test the 3-factor structure of the motivation scale and to examine the relationship between the 3 motivations and PA.


The Wold and Kannas’s motivation measure assessed external, social, and health motivations which predicted PA in adolescents.


The Wold and Kannas’s motivation measure is suitable for assessing motivations for PA in US adolescents and may contribute to both theoretical and intervention studies that address this public health need.

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Aaron J. Coutts

influenced by an individual’s secondary interest(s). 1 In the context of scientific publishing, a COI is a situation where an individual (ie, an author, reviewer, or editor) who is in a position of trust has a competing professional or personal interest such that a reasonable observer might wonder if the

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Mark Dottori, Guy Faulkner, Ryan Rhodes, Norm O’Reilly, Leigh Vanderloo and Gashaw Abeza

 al., 2015 ) 9. Do you think your editor/news organization differs in any of the opinions you have expressed, and if so, how? ( Brüggemann, 2014 ) 10. What internal factors, such as resources available to cover stories, newsroom philosophy, time, or your personal interest in a story, influence your decision

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Jing Liao, Sanmei Chen, Sha Chen and Yung-Jen Yang

.4%), making friends (33.8%), entertainment (33.3%), and fulfilling personal interest (32.6%) were the most chosen motivations of continuing square dancing, with participants dancing over 5 years tended to focus more on social ( p  = .01) and entertaining benefits ( p  = .03) of square dancing. An evening

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Jennifer S. Howard, Aaron Sciascia and Johanna M. Hoch

exercise programs. His personal interest and engagement in resolving his symptoms and quickly returning to play may facilitate his compliance when coupled with a well-explained home exercise program. Step 5: Re-evaluate at Regular/Meaningful Intervals and Modify Plan as Indicated Clinicians should

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Ken Payne and Curtis Edge

personal interest in technology. Some of that stems back to my youth, because I was a ham radio operator when I was 11 years old, and I’ve always had an interest in computers, radio technology, and electronics. In my entire communications career, I have always “guinea pigged” new technologies. That goes

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Kristine Bisgaard and Jan Toftegaard Støckel

I thought our conversations had been good. But when I realised that he had a personal interest in me, I became sad. At the same time, I was afraid of hurting him. I was afraid to tell him that I did not feel the same way. I felt sorry for him. I knew that he had a messy family background and trouble