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Daniel Balderson and Tom Sharpe

This study examined the effects of personal accountability and personal responsibility instructional treatments on elementary-age, urban, at-risk physical education students. A multiple treatment ABAD, ACAD, ADA, control behavior analysis design was implemented across four distinct matched class settings to determine the separate and combined treatment effects of each instructional treatment on the number of occurrences and percentage of class time for the following: teacher management, student leadership, passive and disruptive student off-task, positive social behavior, and student conflict and conflict resolution behaviors. Study participants included fourth- and fifth-grade students from four elementary classes in an inner-city charter-school setting. Results indicated that both personal accountability and personal responsibility treatments were effective in the primary treatment setting for changing all managerial, off-task, and positive social measures in desirable directions. Recommendations include analysis of the potential long-range and generalized effects of social-skill instruction for underserved children and youth conducted in the context of physical education classes.

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Shannon Jette

In this article, Foucault’s notions of disciplinary power and biopower are used in examining representations of pregnancy, fitness, and health in “Fit for Two,” a tips column for new and expectant mothers in Oxygen magazine. The neoliberal emphasis on personal responsibility for health has found a “fertile” home in the column. Medical discourse encouraging individual risk management (i.e., moderate exercise for a healthy pregnancy) and discourses promoting feminine bodily norms are combined with advertisements for pregnancy-related health products to suggest that a woman can transform herself into a “fit” mother through appropriate disciplinary and consumer practices. The article concludes with a discussion of the way in which the pregnant body remains a site of control in contemporary Western society.

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Dan Leidl, Joe Frontiera and James Siestreem

While motivation has long been a topic of intrigue in coaching and sport, it has been subject to little qualitative analysis. Coaches are often regarded as motivators by trade (Hardy, Burke, & Crace, 2005), and there is seemingly a tremendous amount to learn from such expert practitioners. In talking with coaches about how they motivate, one may gain further insight regarding the successful mechanisms they rely on. Through this study, six elite lacrosse coaches were interviewed regarding their motivational tactics. In these interviews the coaches provided like-minded responses that were categorized (i.e., Personal Responsibility, Tools, Transcendence) and further discussed herein. Such information could provide the foundation for further inquiry into the motivational efforts of expert coaches, affording a better understanding of successful motivational tactics.

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Javier Fernandez-Rio and Jose Ignacio Menendez-Santurio


The purpose of this study was to assess students and teachers’ perceptions concerning their participation in an educational kickboxing learning unit based on a hybridization of two pedagogical models: Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility.


Seventy-one students and three physical education teachers agreed to participate. Several instruments were used to collect data: (a) an open-ended question, (b) Photovoice, (c) teacher and external observers’ diaries, and (d) semistructured interviews. MAXQDA 11 software was used to assist with data management, with all participants’ answers being analyzed via thematic content analysis.


Analysis of the data produced 11 themes, three considered strong: responsibility, learning and roles, five considered moderate: enjoyment, teaching, competition, cooperation and novelty, and three considered weak: friendship, affiliation and transfer.


These findings indicated that the hybridization of the two pedagogical models seems to help increase both social and personal responsibility and to provide students with meaningful sporting experiences.

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Cheryl Cooky and Mary G. McDonald

In this article we explore the narratives that 10 White, middle-class female athletes, ages 11–14, (co)produce around their sport experiences. Through interviews, observation, and participant observation, we argue that, consistent with the advertising rhetoric of such multinational corporations as Nike, these girls all advocate hard work, choice, opportunity, and personal responsibility in playing sport and in challenging gender discrimination. We argue this reflects the girls’ subscription to elements of liberal feminism and to their frequent positioning as “insider-others”—that is, outside the dominant gender norms of sport but simultaneously the beneficiaries of Whiteness and middle-class norms. In contrast to Nike and liberal feminists who frequently argue for equal opportunity in sport, these girls’ insider-other narratives suggest the need for critical interrogation of the multiple meanings and effects of sport experiences.

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Mei Du, Mee-Lee Leung, Frank H. Fu and Lynda Ransdell

While job stress in various occupations has gained the attention of experts in both academic research and occupational health care, there is a dearth of information about stress levels among managers in the sport and recreation industry, especially in women and in the Asian culture. Because managers are an important force in delivering sport and recreation services to citizens, the purposes of this study were to examine the job stress and job satisfaction of sport and recreation managers in Hong Kong, and to discern the relationship between stress and job satisfaction. Sport and recreation managers experienced moderate stress (M = 3.63, SD = 0.67) and were satisfied with their jobs (M = 3.79, SD = 0.64). Work relationships (Beta = −.44, p <.001), organizational climate (Beta = −.36, p <.001), home/work balance (Beta = .26, p <.01), and personal responsibility (Beta = .23, p <.01) were important determinants of their job satisfaction. A comprehensive understanding of job stress and job satisfaction is important for minimizing the impact of potential stressors on today’s workforce.

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Catherine E. Draper, Tracy L. Kolbe-Alexander and Estelle V. Lambert


The Community Health Intervention Programmes (CHIPs) is a physical activity-based health promotion program operating in disadvantaged communities in the Western Cape, South Africa with primary school learners, adults and senior adults. Program growth, anecdotal evidence and experience of those involved suggest the program has been positively received by communities. The aim of this study was to conduct a qualitative, retrospective process evaluation concerning both factors associated with successful implementation of the programs, and implementation challenges.


‘Success’ was defined in consultation with CHIPs staff and stakeholders. Data were gathered through naturalistic observation, structured interviews and focus groups (n = 104), and open-ended questionnaires (n = 81). The sample included CHIPs staff and stakeholders, program members and leaders.


Factors contributing to the program’s success include: focus on combining social development and exercise science, community development model, scientifically sound program content, appropriate activities, intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, program leadership, encouraging staff, and various contextual factors.


The findings confirm that CHIPs presents a model of sustainable implementation of physical activity in disadvantaged communities, and that it positively impacts the quality of life, perceptions of the role of physical activity in health, and personal responsibility for health of those involved in its programs.

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Eva Guijarro, Ann MacPhail, Sixto González-Víllora and Natalia María Arias-Palencia

and the level of personal responsibility and social responsibility aligned with specific roles. It is anticipated that this will provide evidence on the extent to which the introduction and practice of different roles in physical education (e.g., captain, coach) can affect the level of responsibility

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Arya M. Sharma, Donna L. Goodwin and Janice Causgrove Dunn

personal responsibility. I do not buy the argument as it reeks of weight bias. In fact, anyone living with a disease has personal responsibility to best manage their condition. When you live with diabetes, you have a personal responsibility to take your medication, check your blood sugars, do your exercise

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Juan Andrés Merino-Barrero, Alfonso Valero-Valenzuela, Noelia Belando Pedreño and Javier Fernandez-Río

(i.e., school, work, and family). Moreover, autonomy has been connected to personal responsibility, whereas social sensitivity (associated with relatedness) has been related to social responsibility ( Hellison, 2011 ). One instructional model that has been found to increase students’ intrinsic