The relationship between the decision of young athletes (N = 98) classified as starters, survivors, and dropouts to either maintain involvement with a competitive sport team or drop out and a number of motivational (personal) and situational factors was examined. The personal and situational factors employed fell into six categories: trait measures (competitive trait anxiety [A-trait], achievement motivation; intrinsic [self] motivation; self-esteem; and causal attributions), general attitudes toward competitive sport, sportsmanship and communication factors, socialization factors (parental and peer group involvement), coaching (leadership) considerations, and cohesion or group climate factors. Discriminant function analysis revealed that the continuum of actual participation which exists (starters-survivors-dropouts) is also directly related to systematic differences in personal factors within the groups as well as in their perception of specific situational factors. Variables discriminating among the groups included perception of group climate (sense of belonging, enjoyment, closeness), attitudes toward competition (perception of the importance of winning, role of physical activity in physical fitness development), socialization factors (encouragement received from fathers, encouragement received from teachers), attributions following athletic outcomes (attributions to ability following failure and effort following success), and leadership (perception of the coach as an autocrat).
Timothy T. Robinson and Albert V. Carron
Tracey J. Devonport, Andrew M. Lane, and Kay Biscomb
Coping is highly relevant to performance in any domain where individuals strive to attain personally important goals. Thirty-three female national standard adolescent netball players participated in focus group and one-on-one interviews. Participants reported stressors experienced in not only sport, but also in other areas of life. They also reported coping strategies used and factors that might influence the stressor-coping process. Results identified stressors that derived from attempts to achieve highly important personal goals in different areas of daily life, including academic, sport, and social settings. Usage of future-oriented coping strategies such as planning, prioritizing, time-management, goal setting, and problem solving were associated with successfully managing multiple stressors and a sense of well-being. The present study illustrated the potential contribution of encouraging athletes to use future-oriented coping strategies when seeking the attainment of goals across domains. Future research should look to test the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote usage of future-oriented coping strategies.
Andrew J. Hutchison and Lynne H. Johnston
The purpose of this article is to expand the literature on case formulation as a clinical tool for use within exercise psychology, generally and lifestyle behavior change interventions, specifically. Existing research offers limited support for the efficacy of current physical activity behavior change intervention strategies, particularly in the long-term. The present paper argues that intervention strategies need to pay greater attention to the complex and individualistic nature of exercise and health related behaviors. It has been suggested that existing intervention designs tend to conform to a medical model approach, which can at times potentially neglect the complex array of personal and situational factors that impact on human motivation and behavior. Case formulation is presented as a means of encouraging a dynamic and comprehensive approach to the development and implementation of practical interventions within the health behavior change field. The adoption of these clinical techniques may facilitate the careful consideration of variations in the development, manifestation, and maintaining mechanisms of problematic behaviors (e.g., inactivity). An overview of case formulation in its different forms is presented alongside a justification for its use within exercise psychology.
Mark W. Bruner, Jeremie M. Carreau, Kathleen S. Wilson, and Michael Penney
The purpose of this study was to investigate youth athletes’ perceptions of group norms for competition, practice, and social setting contexts in relation to personal and social factors. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of the personal and situation factors on perceptions of group norms. Participants included 424 athletes from 35 high school sport teams who completed a survey assessing team norms in competition, practice, and social settings. Multilevel analysis results revealed differences in group norms by gender as well as gender by team tenure and gender by sport type interactions. Female teams held higher perceptions of norms for competition, practice, and social settings than male teams. Interactions between gender and team tenure and gender and sport type revealed significant differences in practice norms. No differences were found in norms by group size. The findings suggest that examining the characteristics of the team members (i.e., gender, team tenure) and team (i.e., type of sport) may enhance our understanding of group norms in a youth sport setting.
Erika D. Van Dyke, Judy L. Van Raalte, Elizabeth M. Mullin, and Britton W. Brewer
others may interpret such self-talk as motivating or challenging ( Tod et al., 2011 ; Van Raalte et al., 1994 ). In their chapter on self-talk and performance, Theodorakis, Hatzigeorgiadis, and Zourbanos ( 2012 ) discussed both personal and situational factors that have been shown to influence negative
Damien Clement and Monna Arvinen-Barrow
where the injury rehabilitation took place, it is also impossible to infer any patterns that may relate to specific regions of the United States. The authors are also cognizant that not all high school rehabilitation settings were identical for the participants. As a consequence, several personal and
Christopher Ring, Maria Kavussanu, and Benjamin Walters
Sciences, 38 ( 4 ), 357 – 365 . PubMed ID: 31810403 doi:10.1080/02640414.2019.1700669 10.1080/02640414.2019.1700669 Ring , C. , Kavussanu , M. , Lucidi , S. , & Hurst , P. ( 2019 ). Effects of personal and situational factors on self-referenced doping likelihood . Psychology of Sport and
Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Nathan Maresh, and Jennifer Earl-Boehm
and situations factors. For example, injury severity (grade II LAS), injury history (2 previous LAS), playing status (junior), history of playing time in games (regular minutes), and timing of the season (end of competitive season) were all likely to influence a participant’s perceptions of pain, rate
Ross Wadey, Kylie Roy-Davis, Lynne Evans, Karen Howells, Jade Salim, and Ceri Diss
professional-practice research (cf. Lindsay, Thomas, & Douglas, 2010 ). After hearing injured athletes’ stories, the SPCs highlighted the importance of having a detailed understanding of personal and situational factors that can help inform subsequent action (i.e., Contextualize the Story). This resonates
Kira L. Innes, Jeffrey D. Graham, and Steven R. Bray
). Although many studies have investigated ways to increase self-efficacy and to improve performance, researchers have also investigated personal and situational factors that have negative effects on self-efficacy and performance. For instance, a large body of evidence shows that performing demanding