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Xiaobin Hong, Yingying Liao, Yan Shi, Changzhu Qi, Mengyan Zhao, and Judy L. Van Raalte

, Vincent, & Brewer, 2016 , 2017 ) describes testable, directional relationships among self-talk that reflect gut feelings and impressions (dubbed System 1 self-talk); intentionally used and cognitively demanding self-talk (dubbed System 2 self-talk); personal factors; contextual factors; and performance

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Lucelia Luna de Melo, Verena Menec, Michelle M. Porter, and A. Elizabeth Ready

This study examined the associations between walking behavior and the perceived environment and personal factors among older adults. Sixty participants age 65 yr or older (mean 77 ± 7.27, range 65–92) wore pedometers for 3 consecutive days. Perceived environment was assessed using the Neighborhood Environment Walk-ability Scale (abbreviated version). Physical function was measured using the timed chair-stands test. The mean number of steps per day was 5,289 steps (SD = 4,029). Regression analyses showed a significant association between personal factors, including physical function (relative rate = 1.05, p < .01) and income (RR = 1.43, p < .05) and the average daily number of steps taken. In terms of perceived environment, only access to services was significantly related to walking at the univariate level, an association that remained marginally significant when controlling for personal characteristics. These results suggest that among this sample of older adults, walking behavior was more related to personal and intrinsic physical capabilities than to the perceived environment.

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Lijuan Wang

) general perception on PE inclusion (Question 1), (b) personal factors (Question 2), (c) physical context (Question 3), (d) social context (Question 4), and (e) other comments (Question 5). Three experts who specialize in inclusive PE reviewed the interview guide and commented that the interview questions provided an

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Carolee Winstein

—“social and personal factors can have a high impact on stroke recovery in humans, affect pragmatic aspects of subject retention in trials, and are not well modelled in preclinical research”—because it underscores the challenges inherent in translating preclinical research into human stroke recovery research

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Benito León, Javier Fernandez-Rio, Sergio Rivera-Pérez, and Damián Iglesias

the relative and low importance of class size in students’ academic achievement, highlighting that in-class cooperation can be a tool to counteract the negative consequences of crowded classrooms. Conclusions Academic performance in physical education is not only influenced by personal factors

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Charles B. Corbin, Steven A. Feyrer-Melk, Craig Phelps, and Lisa Lewis

A group of 1,680 high school athletes were studied to determine factors associated with anabolic steroid use. A questionnaire assessed personal factors and steroid use, behavior of others and steroid use, and availability of anabolic steroids. Use rates were 1.1% for females and 2.4% for males. Steroids were more readily available to males, who also reported knowing more steroid users than did females. Older athletes were more likely to consider steroid use, but differences in use rate were not significant from Grade 8 to 12. Using discriminant analysis, significant differences (p < .001) were found for profiles of steroid users and nonusers for both males and females. For both males and females, personal factors such as having considered steroid use, a willingness to use them if they were legal, and a willingness to use them if they could insure success in sports were the most useful in classifying athletes as steroid users versus nonusers.

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Leen Haerens, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Gabriele Eiben, Fabio Lauria, Silvia Bel, Katharina Keimer, Éva Kovács, Helen Lasn, Susann Regber, Monica Shiakou, Lea Maes, and on behalf of the IDEFICS Consortium


The current study aimed at describing influencing factors for physical activity among young children to determine the best approaches for developing the IDEFICS community based intervention.


In 8 European sites a trained moderator conducted a minimum of 4 focus groups using standardized questioning guides. A total of 56 focus groups were conducted including 36 focus groups with parents and 20 focus groups with children, of which 74 were boys and 81 girls. Key findings were identified through independent reviews of focus group summary reports using content analysis methods.


Findings were generally consistent across countries. The greatest emphasis was on environmental physical (eg, seasonal influences, availability of facilities and safety), institutional (eg, length of breaks at school), and social factors (eg, role modeling of parents). Most cited personal factors by parents were age, social economical status, and perceived barriers. Both children and parents mentioned the importance of children’s preferences.


To increase physical activity levels of young children the intervention should aim at creating an environment (physical, institutional, social) supportive of physical activity. On the other hand strategies should take into account personal factors like age and social economical status and should consider personal barriers too.

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Julie Long, Lucie Thibault, and Richard Wolfe

Because of substantial financial cutbacks, Canadian university athletic departments are facing increased pressure to realign their budgets and seek funding from nontraditional sources. Research that addresses influence over funding decisions in university athletics is therefore warranted. This study addressed the attributes of those who are perceived to have influenced an exclusive sponsorship decision, the methods of influence used to influence this decision, and the extent to which athletic department policies and procedures influenced the process. A single-case study in the athletic department of a Canadian university was undertaken to address these questions. The study involved semistructured interviews with coaches and administrators, participant observation, and document analysis. The results indicated that structural factors (i.e., positional power, coaching high-priority sports) had the greatest influence over the funding decision studied, although personal factors (i.e., expertise, personality, seniority) were also key sources of influence. Interactions among the sources of influence were also observed.

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Hilda F. Mulligan, Leigh A. Hale, Lisa Whitehead, and G. David Baxter

People with disability are insufficiently physically active for health. This study identified the volume, quality, and findings of research that exposes environmental and personal barriers of physical activity participation for people with neurological conditions. CINAHL, Sport Discus, EMBASE, Medline, and AMED were systematically searched between 1999 and week one 2010 for peer reviewed studies that fit the aim of the review. Identified barriers to physical activity participation were categorized into the World Health Organization’s ICF framework of domains. Of the 2,061 studies uncovered in the search, 29 met inclusion criteria and 28 met quality appraisal. Findings showed that barriers to physical activity participation arise from personal factors that, coupled with lack of motivational support from the environment, challenge perceptions of safety and confidence to exercise.

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Sebastian Altfeld, Paul Schaffran, Jens Kleinert, and Michael Kellmann

Paid coaches have to regularly deal with a range of potential stressors in the workplace. These stressors may include emotional and physical demands caused by the complex nature of coaching work. Many coaches have developed useful strategies to cope with these demands. Nevertheless, unexpected changes within the dynamic environment in which they typically operate (e.g., injury, public scrutiny, social media), problems with members of the board or management, continuous negative performance results, or personal factors may challenge the adequacy of coaches’ coping mechanisms. This inability to cope with these stresses can lead to a state of chronic stress. If that state manifests permanently, it can result in a state of emotional exhaustion, ultimately leading to coach burnout. The aim of this article is to define the burnout phenomenon and to provide a clear description of the triggering factors. Furthermore, ideas are presented to guide how coaches can protect themselves and how officials (club or association management) can reduce coaches’ burnout.