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Martin Gérin-Lajoie, Carol L. Richards, and Bradford J. McFadyen

This article introduces a novel, ecological, obstructed walking paradigm. Gait adaptations to circumvent obstacles undergoing uncertain displacements, and the effect of revealing the obstacle’s action beforehand, were investigated in young adults. The personal space (PS) maintained during walking was quantified for the first time under different environmental factors including auditory distractions. Obstacle movement and its uncertainty resulted in gait adjustments aimed at gaining time to assess the situation. Early gait adaptations and constant clearances around the obstacle suggest that anticipation and preplanning are involved in such navigational tasks. Participants systematically maintained an elliptical PS during circumvention, but they adjusted its size according to different environmental factors. There was a relationship between the size of PS and level of attention, which suggests that the regulation of PS is used to control locomotion. This novel paradigm has important implications for the assessment and training of locomotor ability within real world environments.

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Agnès Roby-Brami, Johanna V.G. Robertson, Alexandra Roren, and Marie-Martine Lefèvre-Colau

This study explored the coordination between the components of the shoulder girdle (clavicle, scapula and humerus), and how they contribute to hand movement in the peri-personal space. Shoulder girdle motion was recorded in 10 healthy subjects during pointing movements to 9 targets in the peri-personal space, using electromagnetic sensors fixed to the trunk, scapula and upper arm. Most of the 9 degrees of freedom (DoF) of the shoulder girdle were finely scaled to target position. Principle component analysis revealed that the 6 DoF of scapula-thoracic motion were coordinated in three elementary patterns (protraction, shrug and lateral rotation). The ratio of gleno-humeral to scapulo-thoracic global motion was close to 2:1. A direct kinematic procedure showed that if no scapular motion occurred, the workspace would be reduced by 15.8 cm laterally, 13.7 cm vertically and 4.8 cm anteriorly. Scapulo-thoracic motion should be taken into account when investigating the physiology of upper-limb movements.

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Lana M. Pfaff and Michael E. Cinelli

sport, specificity of learning and personal space during obstacle avoidance. Future research should be directed toward a greater variety in athletes so as to better observe the effects of a human obstacle and mode of locomotion on path selection following a variety of sport-specific training. In

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Karen S. Meaney and Sonya L. Armstrong

communication such as insulting or offensive remarks, shouting, yelling, angry outbursts, and invasion of personal space; • Acts aimed at humiliating and ridiculing such as harsh practical jokes, spreading rumors and gossip, teasing, and taunting; • Manipulation of work such as purposely withholding information

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Elizabeth A. Taylor, Allison B. Smith, Cheryl R. Rode, and Robin Hardin

; Taylor et al., 2015 ). The last type of sexual harassment is physical harassment, or unwanted touching or invasion of one’s personal space by the student. To combat unwanted touching or inappropriate behavior, many female faculty members have implemented a “no hands” policy with students and an open

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Phil Ferrar, Lillian Hosea, Miles Henson, Nadine Dubina, Guy Krueger, Jamie Staff, and Wade Gilbert

, self-conscious, energetic, impatient, mobile/active, asks ‘how’ and ‘what’ While these three athletes and Jamie have some characteristics in common, they are more different than similar. In a few words, Rider 1 likes to do things according to their own schedule and have personal space while Rider 2

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Jinhui Li, Chen Li, Bing Xun Chia, Xinran Chen, Tan Phat Pham, and Yin-Leng Theng

in separate spaces. The separated pair competitive mode was found to be the optimal mode, which had not only high enjoyment from social interactions, but also high physical intensity through having personal space to concentrate on competition. Inspired by the findings from the above research, the

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Nicholas S. Washburn, Karen Lux Gaudreault, Christopher Mellor, Caitlin R. Olive, and Adriana Lucero

kids, like ask them how their day’s going or what they’re doing for the weekend. None of those questions. And I’m like, “What the heck? Like, you’re here for the students. I don’t know why you’re not interacting with them.” (interview) Speaking from a much more personal space, Kendra’s observation of

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Collin C. Brooks and Jaimie M. McMullen

factor of members and nonmembers of a community ( McMillan, 1996 ). Membership refers to the sense of belonging that someone has within a group and is based on their perception of being accepted into the community. Boundaries within a community create a place that protects individual’s personal space and

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Bryan C. Clift

enduring challenge for those in recovery facilities ( Desjarlais, 1997 ). No one in The House had personal space outside of a few small areas, like a shower stall in a larger bathroom or a locker for storage. Safety, security, and general wellbeing dwell in the balance of every person’s hyper-visible and