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Yong Jae Ko, Yonghwan Chang, Wonseok Jang, Michael Sagas and John Otto Spengler

of the diverse sport markets in today’s economy, the need for systematic research on sport consumption decision making is evident. Over several decades, scholars have suggested that examining fundamental psychological constructs such as personality traits is an effective way to understand and predict

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Jeffrey J. Martin, Laurie A. Malone and James C. Hilyer

Research on elite female athletes with disabilities is extremely rare. Therefore, using the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Cattell, Cattell, & Cattell, 1993) and Profile of Mood States (Droppleman, Lorr, & McNair, 1992), we examined differences between the top 12 athletes comprising the gold medal winning 2004 USA women’s Paralympic basketball team and 13 athletes attending the selection camp who did not make the team. Multivariate analysis of variance with follow-up tests revealed that athletes who made the Paralympic team scored higher on tough-mindedness (M = 5.7 vs. 4.3) and lower in anxiety (M = 5.6 vs. 7.8). For mood state, the Paralympians scored higher in vigor (M = 19.5 vs. 14.8) and lower in depressed mood (M = 3.9 vs. 6.7) and confusion (M = 5.5 vs. 7.5). The effect sizes were large (e.g., Cohen’s d = 0.91 - 1.69) for all five results.

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Sarah J. Hanson, Penny McCullagh and Phyllis Tonymon

In 1988, Andersen and Williams proposed a model to explain the stress-injury relationship. The present study tested portions of this framework by investigating frequency and severity of injury occurrence in track and field athletes from four NCAA Division I and II universities. Personality characteristics (locus of control and sport competition trait anxiety), history of stressors (life stress, daily hassles, and past injury), and moderating variables (coping resources and social support) were assessed before the season began. Discriminant analyses indicated that four variables (coping resources, negative life stress, social support, and competitive anxiety) differentiated the severity groups. For injury frequency, coping resources and positive life stress differentiated the groups.

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Kamuran Yerlikaya Balyan, Serdar Tok, Arkun Tatar, Erdal Binboga and Melih Balyan

The present study examined the association between personality, competitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and physiological arousal in athletes with high and low anxiety levels. Anxiety was manipulated by means of an incentive. Fifty male participants, first, completed the Five Factor Personality Inventory and their resting electro dermal activity (EDA) was recorded. In the second stage, participants were randomly assigned to high or low anxiety groups. Individual EDAs were recorded again to determine precompetition physiological arousal. Participants also completed the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) and played a computer-simulated soccer match. Results showed that neuroticism was related to both CSAI-2 components and physiological arousal only in the group receiving the incentive. Winners had higher levels of cognitive anxiety and lower levels of physiological arousal than losers. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that an athlete’s neurotic personality may influence his cognitive and physiological responses in a competition.

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Ken R. Lodewyk

There has been considerable development in the valid quantitative assessment of trait personality dimensions such as honesty-humility, emotionality, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience (HEXACO; Ashton & Lee, 2007 ). Various combinations of these personality

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Mattias Eckerman, Kjell Svensson, Gunnar Edman and Marie Alricsson

leads to a stress response, negative from a performance perspective, and subsequently leads to injury. Apart from the stressor itself, 8 the stress response depends on 3 major psychosocial factors, where personality is one. Research in the field of personality and sports injuries has led to somewhat

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Shuge Zhang, Stuart Beattie, Amanda Pitkethly and Chelsey Dempsey

, 1988 ). Furthermore, they hypothesized that certain personality traits displayed by the athlete might be incongruent with training environments. However, these relationships may be mitigated if the athlete has a set of well-developed psychological strategies. That is, Woodman et al. found that athletes

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David Pierce and James Johnson

environment profiles that are used to match an individual’s score on a personality profile to best-fit occupations, sport management is not identified in Holland-related publications because it is not a specific occupation. The broad nature of sport management, with its varied occupational disciplines

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Michael B. Devlin and Natalie Brown-Devlin

The purpose of this study was to first examine the effects of individual personality on the average time spent consuming sport media each week, and then to examine the extent that team identification mediated the effects of personality on sport media consumption. Personality was assessed using the HEXACO Personality Inventory, which provides a theoretical framework to examine the degree to which six broad personality domains and several underlying personality traits influence behavior. A survey using a national sample of 715 participants indicates that personality traits significantly predict team identity, and directly and indirectly predict sport media consumption. Using this personality framework presents a new area of research for sport communication theories and offers practical application for targeting specific types of individuals when promoting mediated sports events. Future research examining the role of personality in a variety of sport communication areas are offered in conclusion.

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Klaus Heinemann

This paper involves an investigation of the extent to which the leisure-time activities of individuals are tied to work and occupation. Primary attention is focused on how unemployment affects involvement in sport. An analysis of data collected in a 6-month study of 2,500 West German women leads to the conclusion that sports involvement is embedded in a social evaluation of work and leisure time. Sport involvement presupposes a specific personal and social identity, and is linked with a feeling of self-confidence to a specific body concept and time consciousness. What our ideas clarify is that the variability of personality disposition is shaped by situational factors; occupation and work, among other factors, are stabilizing influences. This stability can deteriorate among the unemployed if it is not secured by alternative roles. When stability deteriorates, sport involvement tends to decline.