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John Scott-Hamilton and Nicola S. Schutte

This study examined the role of degree of adherence in a mindfulness-based intervention on mindfulness, flow, sport anxiety, and sport-related pessimistic attributions in athletes. Twelve athletes participated in an 8-week mindfulness intervention which incorporated a mindfulness focus on movement training component. Participants completed baseline and posttest measures of mindfulness, flow, sport anxiety, and sport-related pessimistic attributions, and they filled out daily mindfulness-training logbooks documenting their frequency and duration of mindfulness practice. Participants were identified as either high adherence or low adherence with mindfulness-training based on a composite score of logbook practice records and workshop attendance. Athletes high in adherence, operationalized as following recommended practice of mindfulness exercises, showed significantly greater increases in mindfulness and aspects of flow, and significantly greater decreases in pessimism and anxiety than low adherence athletes. Greater increases in mindfulness from baseline to posttest were associated with greater increases in flow and greater decreases in pessimism. Increases in flow were associated with decreases in somatic anxiety and pessimism.

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John H. Kerr, Cecilia K. F. Au, and Koenraad J. Lindner

As part of a sport and exercise participation questionnaire, samples of Hong Kong high school students (n = 1,496) and high school students entering university (n = 862) completed the Motivational Style Profile (MSP; 4). In addition, 1,493 high school and 848 university entrants completed the MSP-SE, a sport and exercise version of the MSP. Students also completed six extra items related to general life motivational orientations (LMOs) and one other item relating to the frequency of their sport and exercise participation. Based on their answers to this latter item, students were divided into inactive, active, and very active groups and their metamotivational profiles tested for differences. MANOVA techniques produced several significant differences among activity groups in metamotivational dominance and state balance dimensions. The results are presented, and then they are discussed in terms of their implications for sport and exercise provision in high school, university, and more general contexts.

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Annelies Knoppers, Barbara Bedker Meyer, Martha E. Ewing, and Linda Forrest

Data from 947 Division I college coaches in the United States were used to examine three hypotheses concerning the impact of gender ratio on the frequency of social interaction between women and men coaches. These hypotheses were based on (a) the structural perspective characterized by the politics of optimism, (b) the institutional approach associated with the politics of pessimism, and (c) the common consciousness or subculture perspective represented by the politics of transcendence. Most support was shown for the politics of pessimism, which contends that an increase of women in a male-dominated occupation is associated with rising gender boundaries and sex segregation. Results are explored in the context of gendered homosociality.

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Maria Kavussanu and Edward McAuley

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between reported physical activity and optimism. A secondary purpose was to determine whether physical self-efficacy and trait anxiety mediate the relationship between exercise and optimism. Participants (N = 188) were administered a battery of questionnaires assessing optimism, pessimism, physical self-efficacy, trait anxiety, and extent and nature of involvement in physical activity. Demographic information was also collected. The results indicated that high active individuals were significantly more optimistic and less pessimistic than inactive/low active individuals. In addition, the moderately and high active groups reported significantly higher physical self-efficacy and lower trait anxiety than the inactive/low active group. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that trait anxiety and physical self-efficacy accounted for significant unique variation in optimism. The findings are consistent with previous research indicating that optimists engage in exercise significantly more often than pessimists.

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Georgia Allen, Claire Thornton, and Holly Riby

. In particular, they suggested that locus of control, dispositional style (i.e., optimism vs. pessimism), or individual differences such as personality or motivational disposition may influence SR use. Motivational approaches such as need-achievement theory may provide a framework for examining such

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R. Scott Kretchmar and Cesar R. Torres

vacillate between optimism and pessimism,” they suggested that given the philosophy of sport’s successes and challenges since the 1970s, its future “trends somewhere in the middle” (p. 247). Their position is reminiscent of that of Gramsci ( 1973 ) when positing that his state of mind regarding the world

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Thomas O. Minkler, Sam Zizzi, Blake Costalupes, and D. Jake Follmer

 al. ( 2016 ) found that, among competitive cyclists, MBI participants improved significantly in flow and mindfulness with moderate effect sizes ( d  = 0.75 and 0.63, respectively) and reductions in pessimism with a small effect size ( d  = 0.34) compared with a control group. Glass et al. ( 2019 ) also found

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Hiroko Kukihara, Niwako Yamawaki, Michiyo Ando, Yoshiko Tamura, Kumi Arita, and Emiko Nakashima

-being. Morale is a multidimensional concept defined as a future-oriented optimism or pessimism regarding the problems and opportunities associated with aging ( McDowell, 2006 ). More specifically, morale is subjective to psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and quality of life in older adult populations

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Moss E. Norman, LeAnne Petherick, and Edward (Sonny) Albert

, race and entitlement in Canada’s “national” game . In D. Whitson & R. Gruneau (Eds.), Artificial ice: Hockey, culture, and commerce (pp.  71 – 84 ). University of Toronto Press . Ali , A. ( 2018 , November 30 ). What counts as a national tragedy? The cruel pessimism of humboldt. The

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Paul A. Davis, Louise Davis, Samuel Wills, Ralph Appleby, and Arne Nieuwenhuys

narcissism ( Roberts, Woodman, Hardy, Davis, & Wallace, 2013 ; Wallace, Baumeister, & Vohs, 2005 ), as well as cognitive orientation styles including optimism and pessimism ( Wilson, Raglin, & Pritchard, 2002 ), have been found to influence an athlete’s experience of emotions and subsequent performance