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Aaron T. Scanlan, Vincent J. Dalbo, Daniele Conte, Emilija Stojanović, Nenad Stojiljković, Ratko Stanković, Vladimir Antić and Zoran Milanović

Purpose: To examine the effect of caffeine supplementation on dribbling speed in elite female and male basketball players. Methods: A double-blind, counterbalanced, randomized, crossover design was used. Elite basketball players (N = 21; 10 female, 11 male; age 18.3 [3.3] y) completed placebo (3 mg·kg−1 of body mass of dextrose) and caffeine (3 mg·kg−1 of body mass) trials 1 wk apart during the in-season phase. During each trial, players completed 20-m linear sprints with and without dribbling a basketball. Performance times were recorded at 5-, 10-, and 20-m splits. Dribbling speed was measured using traditional (total performance time) and novel (dribble deficit) methods. Dribble deficit isolates the added time taken to complete a task when dribbling compared with a nondribbling version of the same task. Comparisons between placebo and caffeine conditions were conducted at group and individual levels. Results: Nonsignificant (P > .05), trivial to small (effect size = 0.04–0.42) differences in dribbling speed were observed between conditions. The majority (20 out of 21) of players were classified as nonresponders to caffeine, with 1 player identified as a negative responder using dribble-deficit measures. Conclusions: Results indicate that caffeine offers no ergogenic benefit to dribbling speed in elite basketball players. The negative response to caffeine in 1 player indicates that caffeine supplementation may be detrimental to dribbling speed in specific cases and emphasizes the need for individualized analyses in nutrition-based sport-science research.

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Andrea S. Hartmann, Florian Steenbergen, Silja Vocks, Dirk Büsch and Manuel Waldorf

are high rates of performance- and appearance-enhancing substance use (including both supplements and pharmaceuticals, hereinafter abbreviated to substance use when referring to a combination of both), mostly in the form of laxatives (e.g.,  Lupattelli et al., 2015 ). Thus, unarguably, eating disorder

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Abdulazeem Kamkar, Candice Cardi-Laurent and Susan L. Whitney

First rib subluxation is one possible cause of neck, shoulder, and arm pain. The anatomy and biomechanics of the first rib contribute to its tendency to sublux superiorly. Management of first rib subluxation may include manipulative therapy, therapeutic exercises, pharmaceutical agents, and physical modalities to correct joint dysfunction, decrease soft tissue tension, and prevent recurrence.

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Aaron J. Coutts

to be carefully considered. Nonetheless, while the level of funding and external support for sport-performance research is often lower than heavily privately funded research areas (eg, biomedical or pharmaceuticals), similar COIs occur for sport-related researchers. These may occur when • A

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Ralph Beneke and Renate M. Leithäuser

must be pharmaceutically reduced to <5 nmol·L −1 over a period of 6 months to competing in international women’s running events of 400 m to a mile. From an exercise physiologist’s perspective, this focus on long-sprint and middle-distance events and the 6-month control period triggers some curiosity

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Ronald J. Maughan, Susan M. Shirreffs and Alan Vernec

. These undeclared pharmaceuticals can make what would otherwise be ineffective products into products that are effective in achieving their stated aims—this cannot simply be coincidence. According to Eichner and Tygart ( 2016 ), more than a thousand products have been identified to contain stimulants

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Alan J. McCubbin, Anyi Zhu, Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa

1980s, with the goal to optimize the bioavailability of oral pharmaceuticals ( George & Abraham, 2007 ). In this setting, the delivery of tens or hundreds of milligrams of a substance at rest is required, whereas during exercise, delivery of substantially larger quantities (i.e., tens of grams per hour

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Chad M. Killian and Amelia Mays Woods

.J. ( 2013 ). Instructional design and assessment: Pharmacy student engagement, performance, and perception in a flipped satellite classroom . American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 77 ( 9 ), 196 – 198 . Retrieved from doi:10.5688/ajpe779196 10

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Ina Garthe and Ronald J. Maughan

pharmaceutical control. Ergogenic supplements: Supplements intended to enhance performance Caffeine, β-alanine, bicarbonate, nitrate (beetroot juice), creatine Ergogenic supplements that are not on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prohibited list are concentrates of substances found in food. There is a risk

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Bethany Geckle

pharmaceutical companies and international customs agencies, regular testing, and testimonials. By ‘opening’ the black box and dismantling given ideas like “doping is bad,” Kerr’s ANT study reveals important relationships of power in sport, such as those between WADA and athletes. Sport and Technology is an