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João Pedro Nunes, Alex S. Ribeiro, Analiza M. Silva, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Leandro dos Santos, Paolo M. Cunha, Matheus A. Nascimento, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Melissa Antunes, Letícia T. Cyrino and Edilson S. Cyrino

), commonly measured by the bioimpedance-derived values termed as resistance and reactance. The relationship between resistance and reactance can be expressed as the phase angle (PhA) score, which represents the tissue conductivity and cellular health. Some recent studies have shown that PhA is associated

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Josely C. Koury, Nádia M.F. Trugo and Alexandre G. Torres

The aim of the current study was to assess phase angle (PA) and bioelectrical impedance vectors (BIVA) in adolescent (n = 105, 12–19 y) and adult (n = 90, 20–50 y) male athletes practicing varied sports modalities. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed with a single-frequency tetrapolar impedance analyzer after the athletes had fasted overnight for 8 h. PA and BIVA were determined from BIA data. PA presented correlations (P < .01) with body-mass index (r = .58) in all athletes and also with age in adolescent (r = .63) and adult (r = –.27) athletes. Compared with adults, adolescent athletes presented lower PA and higher frequency of PA below the 5th percentile of a reference population (P < .001). The adolescents with low PA were mostly football and basketball players. The BIVA confidence ellipses of adult and adolescent athletes were different (P < .001) between them and from their respective reference populations and were closer than those of adult and adolescent nonathletes. About 80% of the athletes were in the 95th percentile of BIVA tolerance ellipses and in quadrants consistent with adequate body cell mass and total body water. The adolescent athletes outside the 95th percentile ellipse were all football and basketball players who showed indications of decreased water retention and body cell mass and of increased water retention, respectively. PA and BIVA ellipses showed that the intense training routine of the athletes changed functional and hydration parameters and that the magnitude of these changes in adolescents may depend on the sport modality practiced.

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Francesco Campa, Catarina N. Matias, Elisabetta Marini, Steven B. Heymsfield, Stefania Toselli, Luís B. Sardinha and Analiza M. Silva

constant chemical composition of the fat-free body. 8 BIVA provides a classification (eg, normal or not normal) and ranking (eg, better or worse after treatment or intervention) tool; it does not provide estimates of volume or mass. The vectors defined by their length ([R 2 +Xc 2 ] 0.5 ) and phase angle

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Matteo Levi Micheli, Luca Pagani, Mario Marella, Massimo Gulisano, Antonio Piccoli, Fabrizio Angelini, Martin Burtscher and Hannes Gatterer

Purpose:

Bioelectrical-impedance standards (resistance, reactance, and phase angle) are well established for the normal population or in the clinical setting and are considered indicators for cell mass, cell function, and hydration status. However, such standards do not exist for the male soccer population. Therefore, the goal of the current investigation was to provide a set of bioelectrical-impedance data of a large sample of soccer players with different performance levels.

Methods:

A sample of 893 players, registered in all Italian soccer divisions, was divided into 5 groups according to their performance level. Whole-body impedance measurements were performed during the first half of the competitive period. Besides estimation of body composition, bioelectrical-impedance vector analysis (BIVA) was performed. BIVA does not depend on equations and displays differences in hydration and body-cell mass (BCM). Individual vectors can be classified by using the 50%, 75%, and 95% tolerance ellipse.

Results:

In comparison with the other divisions and the normal population, the mean vector of the elite level showed a shift to the left (P < .001). Compared with the elite level, players of a lower performance level had lower phase angles, BCM, and fat-free mass.

Conclusions:

In conclusion, soccer players belong to a specific population. Muscle mass and function, as indicated by BCM and phase angle, increase with increasing performance level. The soccer-specific tolerance ellipses might be used for classifying individual vectors and to define target regions for low-level players.

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Francesco Campa, Hannes Gatterer, Henry Lukaski and Stefania Toselli

-precision mechanical scale (GPM, Zürich, Switzerland). The impedance measurements were performed with a bioimpedance analyzer (BIA 101 Anniversary; Akern Srl, Florence, Italy) at a frequency of 50 kHz. Bioimpedance values were analyzed according to the BIVA method. 5 , 6 Phase angle (PA) was calculated as the

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Alex S. Ribeiro, Matheus A. Nascimento, Brad J. Schoenfeld, João Pedro Nunes, Andreo F. Aguiar, Edilaine F. Cavalcante, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha, Steven J. Fleck and Edilson S. Cyrino

Phase angle (PhA) is a parameter derived from bioimpedance that has been widely used as an indicator of cellular health, with higher values reflecting better cellularity (i.e., quality and condition of cells); cell membrane integrity; and cell function ( De Lorenzo, Andreoli, Matthie, & Withers

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Ryan B. Graham, Catherine L.W. Smallman, Erin M. Sadler and Joan M. Stevenson

It has been suggested that interjoint coordination may serve to reduce joint stress and muscular demand and to maintain balance during dynamic lifting tasks, thus having implications for safe lifting practices. Before recommending the use of an on-body ergonomic aid, the Personal Lift-Assist Device (PLAD), it is important to determine any effects this device may have on interjoint coordination. Principal component analyses were applied to relative phase angle waveforms, defining the hip–knee and lumbar spine–hip coordination of 15 males and 15 females during a repetitive lifting task. When wearing the PLAD, users lifted with more synchronous hip–knee and lumbar spine–hip coordination patterns (P < .01). Furthermore, increases in load caused less synchronized interjoint coordination at both the hip–knee and lumbar spine–hip during the up and down phases of the lift (P < .01) for all conditions. No significant main effects of sex or significant interactions were observed on any of the outcome variables.

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Tibor Hortobágyi, Richard G. Israel, Joseph A. Houmard, Kevin F. O'Brien, Robert A. Johns and Jennifer M. Wells

Four methods of assessing body composition were compared in 55 black and 35 white, Division 1, American football players. Percent body fat (%BF) was estimated with hydrostatic weighing at residual volume, corrected for race; seven-site skinfolds (7 SF), corrected for race; bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA); and near-infrared spectrophotometry (NIR). Percent body fat with HW in blacks (mean = 14.7%) and whites (19.7%) did not differ (P > .05) from %>BF with 7 SF (blacks, 14.7%; whites, 19.0%). In relation to HW, BIA significantly (P < .05) overpredicted (blacks: 20.1%, SEE = 3.2%; whites; 22.3%, SEE = 4.3%) and NiR underpredicted %BF (blacks; 12.6%, SEE = 3.9%; whites; 17.7%, SEE = 3.6%). The contribution of BIA variables (resistance, phase angle, conductance) and NIR optical density to predict %BF was trivial compared to body mass index. It appears that race may not substantially influence %BF prediction by NIR and BIA. It was concluded that when considering the cost and expertise required with NIR and BIA, SF measurements appear to be a superior alternative for rapid and accurate body composition assessment of athletes, independent of race.

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Lindsay K. Drewes, Patrick O. McKeon, Gabriele Paolini, Patrick Riley, D. Casey Kerrigan, Christopher D. Ingersoll and Jay Hertel

Context:

Kinematic patterns during gait have not been extensively studied in relation to chronic ankle instability (CAI).

Objective:

To determine whether individuals with CAI demonstrate altered ankle kinematics and shank-rear-foot coupling compared with controls during walking and jogging.

Design:

Case control.

Setting:

Motion-analysis laboratory.

Participants:

7 participants (3 men, 4 women) suffering from CAI (age 24.6 ± 4.2 y, height 172.6 ± 9.4 cm, mass 70.9 ± 8.1 kg) and 7 (3 men, 4 women) healthy, matched controls (age 24.7 ± 4.5 y, height 168.2 ± 5.9 cm, mass 66.5 ± 9.8 kg).

Interventions:

Subjects walked and jogged on a treadmill while 3-dimensional kinematics of the lower extremities were captured.

Main Outcome Measures:

The positions of rear-foot inversion–eversion and shank rotation were calculated throughout the gait cycle. Continuous relative-phase angles between these segments were calculated to assess coupling.

Results:

The CAI group demonstrated more rear-foot inversion and shank external rotation during walking and jogging. There were differences between groups in shank-rear-foot coupling during terminal swing at both speeds.

Conclusions:

Altered ankle kinematics and joint coupling during the terminal-swing phase of gait may predispose a population with CAI to ankle-inversion injuries. Less coordinated movement during gait may be an indication of altered neuromuscular recruitment of the musculature surrounding the ankle as the foot is being positioned for initial contact.

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Masao Tomioka, Tammy M. Owings and Mark D. Grabiner

We previously reported that lower extremity muscular strength of older adults did not predict success of a balance recovery task. We propose that lower extremity coordination may limit performance independently of lower extremity strength. The present study was conducted to determine the extent to which knee extension strength and hip–knee coordination independently contribute to maximum vertical jump height. Maximum vertical jump height and isometric and isokinetic knee extension strength and power were determined in 13 young adults. Hip–knee coordination during the vertical jump was quantified using relative phase angles. Stepwise nonlinear multiple regression determined the variable set that best modeled the relationship between the dependent variable, maximum vertical jump height, and the independent variables of strength, power, and coordination. The quadratic terms of the normalized knee extension strength at 60 deg·s–1, and the average relative phase during the propulsion phase of the vertical jump, collectively accounted for more than 80% of the shared variance (p = .001). The standardized regression coefficients of the two terms, .59 and .52, respectively (p = .004 and .008), indicated the independence and significance of the contributions of knee extension strength and hip–knee coordination to maximum vertical jump height. Despite the pitfalls of extrapolating these results to older adults performing a balance recovery task, the results are interpreted as supporting the contention that while muscle strength confers a number of functional benefits, the ability to avoid falling as a result of a trip is not necessarily ensured. Increased muscle strength per se can occur in the absence of improved kinematic coordination.