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Øyvind F. Standal

Through the increased use of qualitative research methods, the term phenomenology has become a quite familiar notion for researchers in adapted physical activity (APA). In contrast to this increasing interest in phenomenology as methodology, relatively little work has focused on phenomenology as philosophy or as an approach to professional practice. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of phenomenology as philosophy and as pedagogy to the field of APA. First, phenomenology as philosophy is introduced through three key notions, namely the first-person perspective, embodiment, and life-world. The relevance of these terms to APA is then outlined. Second, the concept of phenomenological pedagogy is introduced, and its application and potential for APA are discussed. In conclusion, it is argued that phenomenology can help theorize ways of understanding human difference in movement contexts and form a basis of action-oriented research aiming at developing professional practice.

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Gregory A. Dale

Qualitative research in sport psychology is slowly becoming more of an accepted form of inquiry, and most of this research is conducted using various interview methods. In this paper, information is provided on a paradigm that has been given little consideration in sport psychology literature. This paradigm is termed existential phenomenology, and within this paradigm a chief mode of inquiry is the phenomenological interview. With its open-ended format and similarities to the athlete-sport psychology consultant interaction in a performance enhancement intervention, it is a method that appears to offer valuable information about the participant’s experience that might otherwise go unnoticied. The basic views of existential phenomenology, including its philosophical foundations as well as instructions for conducting a phenomenological interview study, are provided. Specific discussion of the potential significance of this type of research for the field of sport psychology is offered.

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Johannes Raabe, E. Earlynn Lauer, and Matthew P. Bejar

Pollio et al., 1997 ; Thomas & Pollio, 2002 ) was adopted for the study. Phenomenology has previously been employed in sport psychology to investigate other phenomena, such as competition ( Jensen et al., 2013 ), coping ( Nicholls et al., 2005 ), exercise dependency ( Fahlberg et al., 1992 ), and

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Duncan Simpson and Lauren P. Elberty

suddenly lost their teammates. A research approach that has the potential to capture the experience of an unexpected death in sport is existential phenomenology which, is concerned with the human existence and a way of measuring this experience ( Pollio, Henley, & Thompson, 1997 ). Using an existential

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Kacey C. Neely, John G.H. Dunn, Tara-Leigh F. McHugh, and Nicholas L. Holt

individuals encounter ( Tedeschi & Calhoun, 2004 ). Interpretative phenomenological analysis research is underpinned by three main concepts: phenomenology, hermeneutics, and ideography ( Smith et al., 2009 ). Phenomenology is concerned with first-person accounts of lived experience. These were captured via

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Kenneth Aggerholm and Kristian Møller Moltke Martiny

To understand the value of a winter sports camp, it is important to consider the experiences of the participants. Phenomenology provides a solid theoretical and methodological framework for investigating experience. It can contribute with an approach to studies and interventions within adapted

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Carly Litchfield, Denise M. Connelly, Melissa E. Hay, and Elizabeth Anne Kinsella

by the work of van Manen ( 1990 ), combining descriptive and hermeneutic phenomenology and recognizing the interpretations of the observer to enhance understandings of the meaning of life experiences through cognitive and emotional means ( Dowling, 2007 ; vanManen, 1997 ). Van Manen’s interest in

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Bobbi-Jo Atchison and Donna L. Goodwin

research approach for the study ( Brewer et al., 2008 , p. 7). Interpretative phenomenological analysis has its theoretical roots in phenomenology, idiography, and hermeneutics ( Smith et al., 2009 ). To illustrate research coherence and avoid “method slurring,” the tenets of IPA are described ( Holloway

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Jens Omli

This article is an introduction to the MVP model, which focuses on the experience of competitive sport performance from a phenomenological stance, with particular emphasis on the influence of perceived success and failure. One premise of the MVP model is that sport performance is partially determined by the athlete’s interpretation of prior performances, which influences the trajectory and intensity of his or her phenomenological state. A second premise is that when the experiences described by athletes are analyzed together as a “layered picture,” these experiences tend to follow a pattern summarized by a sequence of six “competitive positions,” which can be arranged around a semicircumplex called the “Performance Dial.” The Performance Dial is an educational tool that can be used in consultations to facilitate communication between practitioners and athletes. The MVP model also serves as a framework within which sport psychology research findings can be understood in relation to the experience of sport performance, thereby increasing the applicability of sport performance research for practitioners.

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Lenny D. Wiersma

Extreme sport athletes perform in environments that are characterized by danger, unpredictability, and fear, and the consequences of a mistake include severe injury or death. Maverick’s is a big-wave surfing location in northern California that is known for its cold water temperatures, dangerous ocean wildlife, deep reef, and other navigational hazards. The purpose of this study was to use a phenomenological framework to understand the psychology of big-wave surfing at Maverick’s. Seven elite big-wave surfers completed in-depth phenomenological interviews and discussed the psychology related to various stages of big-wave surfing, including presurf, in the lineup, catching the wave, riding the wave, wiping out, and postsurf. Big-wave surfers described a variety of experiences associated with surfing at Maverick’s and discussed several ways that they coped with its challenges. The results provide a greater understanding of the psychology of participating in an extreme environment.