athletics? In the next section, we discuss the concept of hegemonic masculinity and how it informs the photo elicitation methodology employed in this study. Then, we present and discuss themes from athletic administrator responses to written vignettes and photographs of male and female athletic directors
Timothy Jon Curry
Photo-elicitation is a technique of interviewing in which photographs are used to stimulate and guide a discussion between the interviewer and the respondent. While much of the previous research done with the method has been conducted by anthropologists in foreign cultures, the technique is also well suited for the study of sports in America. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of this method in comparison to standard interviewing, participant observation, and survey methods of studying sports. An illustrative portion is presented of a photo-elicitation interview conducted with an elite college wrestler about the violence, pain, and injury inherent in his sport, and the article concludes with a brief description of other sociology of sport topics currently being researched with the photo-elicitation interview.
Eldon E. Snyder and Mary Jo Kane
Previous research has identified gender appropriate and inappropriate sports for females. The present study uses a photo elicitation technique to study respondents’ attitudes toward two women’s sports: college basketball and gymnastics, Interestingly, this methodology manifests different results from more traditional techniques. Contrary to the expected results based on previous studies, the photo elicitation technique indicates that the perceptions of female participation in basketball were similar to gymnastics. This method of gathering data as well as the results of this study have several important implications for the field of sport management.
Michelle McCalpin, Blair Evans, and Jean Côté
Competitive engineering is a process whereby sport organizations modify the rules, facilities, and equipment involved in sport to facilitate desirable athlete outcomes and experiences. Competitive engineering is being increasingly adopted by youth sport organizations with empirical evidence positively supporting its influence on skill development and performance. The purpose of this study was to explore young female athletes’ experiences in their modified soccer environment. Seventeen recreational and competitive soccer players, aged 8–11, participated in semistructured photo elicitation interviews that featured several visual qualitative methods (i.e., athlete-directed photography, drawing exercises, and pile-sorting) to facilitate insight on their sport environments. Results revealed that the athletes’ competitively engineered soccer experience was perceived as being a distinct environment that emphasized personal development, positive relationships, and the underlying enjoyment of sport. These findings shed light of how youth sport structure modifications influence the athletes’ experiences, providing practical implications to further promote positive youth sport experiences.
Catherine E. Dorwart
Though physical inactivity can lead to increased health problems in older adults, few places actually encourage this population to be active by implementing choices that allow the built and natural environment to be accessed by foot or bicycle. In addition, little research has examined older adults’ perceptions of design and the relationship between greenways and improving public health, a topic that is receiving popular attention. The objective of this mixed-methods study was therefore to evaluate elements in a greenway’s design that the aging population found important and which afforded physical activity. Using a combination of survey questions, photo elicitation, and interviews, data were collected from a sample of older adults aged 65 and over that used a greenway trail. Results of this study indicated that older adults may prefer certain elements on a trail, namely those elements that afforded their choice of activity. Although there will always be limitations to understanding behavioral responses to the built environment, this should not disqualify the benefits of greenways on older adults’ physical activity.
Déirdre Ní Chróinín, Maura Coulter, and Melissa Parker
taking photos, selecting photos for inclusion in their diaries, and then writing about their photos in their diaries. Data Sources Data sources included the following: (a) children’s photo-diaries, (b) teacher-written lesson reflections, (c) photo-elicitation focus group interviews with children, and (d
Mara Simon and Laura Azzarito
choosing over the course of approximately 9 months, following guidelines for narrative-based, semistructured, and conversational interviews coupled with photo elicitation ( Prosser, 2007 ). Each interview was approximately 1 hr in length. The initial semistructured interview protocol provided insight into
happened in two phases: 1) visual diaries and 2) photo-elicitation interviews. All girls who completed the study received a $15.00 gift card from a local shop of their choice as a token of appreciation for their participation. Visual Diaries A visual diary involves the use of photography and captions to
Eldon E. Snyder
Previous studies of emotion in sport have examined team sports. The present research focuses on an individual sport—women’s collegiate gymnastics. Data were gathered during the gymnastics season of 1988-89 from 10 members of the team and its coach and trainer. The methodology included the use of photo-elicitation interviews and observations of women’s gymnastics. The emotion-work and categories of emotions described were displayed when the gymnasts were off stage, when preparing to compete, between events, and after competition. Discussion focuses on the control and management of emotions according to the “feeling rules” (i.e., the socially constructed subcultural norms of the sport). The gymnasts did display individual variations in their adherence to the feeling rules. Categories of emotion included nervousness, fear of pain and injury, frustration, and disappointment. Emotional social experiences included social psyching up and the happiness and joy associated with a successful performance. Consideration is given to some advantages and qualifications of the photo-elicitation technique.
Timothy J. Curry and Richard H. Strauss
This visual study explores the social conditions that promote the normalization of injuries in sport. Photographs taken at a university wrestling team’s meets and practices, and in a hospital operating room, convey some of the details and social ambience of today’s approach to collegiate sports medicine. Quotations drawn from photo-elicitation interviews with the coaches and athletes express the views of the participants. This study suggests that the normalization of injuries in sport—illustrated when universities make medical care immediately available and coaches and athletes minimize the significance of injury—encourages continued participation. Such continuation may be questioned by those concerned with the long-term effects of “playing with pain.”