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David A. Ferrer and Rebecca Ellis

or providing information. The use of theory-based content to build physical activity interventions has been suggested 4 , 7 ; however, the evidence supporting their effectiveness is mixed. Conn et al 3 found significantly smaller effect sizes when interventions used the social cognitive theory (SCT

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Jocelyn Kernot, Lucy Lewis, Tim Olds and Carol Maher

studies with physical activity interventions targeting postpartum women have been face-to-face group based 9 – 12 or included one-on-one support (face to face, through SMS, or through phone), 13 – 17 which may be costly, resource intensive, and place a significant time burden on participants. Mothers

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Lauren Ashleigh Waters, Benedicte Galichet, Neville Owen and Elizabeth Eakin

Background:

Taking a representative snapshot of physical activity intervention trial findings published between 1996 and 2006, we empirically evaluated participant characteristics, response and retention rates, and their associations with intervention settings.

Methods:

A structured database search identified 5 representative health behavior journals, from which 32 research reports of physical activity intervention trials were reviewed. Interventions settings were categorized as workplace, healthcare, home- or community-based. Information on participant and intervention characteristics was extracted and reviewed.

Results:

The majority of participants were Caucasian (86%), women (66%), healthy but sedentary (63%), and middle-aged (mean age = 51 years). Intervention response rates ranged from 20% to 89%, with the greatest response rate for healthcare and home-based interventions. Compared with nonparticipants, study participants tended to be women, Caucasian, tertiary-educated, and middle-class. Participants in workplace interventions were younger, more educated, and healthier; in community-based interventions, participants were older and more ethnically diverse. Reporting on education and income was inconsistent. The mean retention rate was 78%, with minimal differences between intervention settings.

Conclusions:

These results emphasize the need for physical activity interventions to target men, socioeconomically disadvantaged, and ethnic minority populations. Consistent reporting of response rate and retention may enhance the understanding of which intervention settings best recruit and retain large, representative samples.

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Valerie Senkowski, Clara Gannon and Paul Branscum

much activity as their limiting conditions allow. Programs that increase the frequency and duration of physical activity among older adults are greatly needed, given the decline in physical activity in the aging population. A recent meta-analysis of physical activity interventions in older adults (55

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Iina Antikainen and Rebecca Ellis

Although physical activity interventions have been shown to effectively modify behavior, little research has examined the potential of these interventions for adoption in real-world settings. The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the external validity of 57 theory-based physical activity interventions using the RE-AIM framework. The physical activity interventions included were more likely to report on issues of internal, rather than external validity and on individual, rather than organizational components of the RE-AIM framework, making the translation of many interventions into practice difficult. Furthermore, most studies included motivated, healthy participants, thus reducing the generalizability of the interventions to real-world settings that provide services to more diverse populations. To determine if a given intervention is feasible and effective in translational research, more information should be reported about the factors that affect external validity.

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Otávio Luis Piva da Cunha Furtado, Kelly Allums-Featherston, Lauren Joy Lieberman and Gustavo Luis Gutierrez

The authors conducted a systematic literature review on physical activity interventions for children and youth with visual impairment (VI). Five databases were searched to identify studies involving the population of interest and physical activity practices. After evaluating 2,495 records, the authors found 18 original full-text studies published in English they considered eligible. They identified 8 structured exercise-training studies that yielded overall positive effect on physical-fitness and motor-skill outcomes. Five leisure-time-physical-activity and 5 instructional-strategy interventions were also found with promising proposals to engage and instruct children and youth with VI to lead an active lifestyle. However, the current research on physical activity interventions for children and youth with VI is still limited by an absence of high-quality research designs, low sample sizes, use of nonvalidated outcome measures, and lack of generalizability, which need to be addressed in future studies.

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Lukas K. Gaffney, Oscar D. Lozano, Adriana Almanza, Nubia Ruiz, Alejandro Mantero and Mark Stoutenberg

particularly marked in low- and middle-income countries. 4 In many of these countries, a lack of physical activity programming is compounded by inadequate program evaluation and scientific inquiry. The majority of research on physical activity interventions has been carried out in high-income countries. While

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David M. Williams, George D. Papandonatos, Melissa A. Napolitano, Beth A. Lewis, Jessica A. Whiteley and Bess H. Marcus

Given the decreased rate of morbidity and mortality associated with physical activity, understanding the factors that enhance the efficacy of physical activity interventions is a priority. The present study examined the moderating effect of baseline enjoyment of physical activity on the efficacy of a physical activity intervention. Participants were 238 healthy low-active adults enrolled in Project STRIDE, a randomized, controlled, clinical trial comparing individually tailored print and telephone interventions to a contact control. Results indicated a significant interaction between intervention assignment (telephone or print intervention vs. contact control) and baseline enjoyment on physical activity at 6 months, as measured by the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (z = 2.44, p < .05). These results indicate that our motivationally tailored physical activity promotion program may be more effective among individuals reporting greater enjoyment of physical activity at baseline, and suggest that attention be paid to designing programs that can be effective for participants who report lower levels of physical activity enjoyment.

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Lauren Waters, Marina Reeves, Brianna Fjeldsoe and Elizabeth Eakin

Background:

Several recent physical activity intervention trials have reported physical activity improvements in control group participants. Explanations have been proposed, but not systematically investigated.

Methods:

A systematic review of physical activity intervention trials was conducted to investigate the frequency of meaningful improvements in physical activity among control group participants (increase of ≥ 60 minutes [4 MET·hours] of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week, or a 10% increase in the proportion of participants meeting physical activity recommendations), and possible explanatory factors. Explanatory factors include aspects of behavioral measurement, participant characteristics, and control group treatment.

Results:

Eight (28%) of 29 studies reviewed reported meaningful improvements in control group physical activity, most of which were of similar magnitude to improvements observed in the intervention group. A number of factors were related to meaningful control group improvements in physical activity, including the number of assessments, mode of measurement administration, screening to exclude active participants, and preexisting health status.

Conclusions:

Control group improvement in physical activity intervention trials is not uncommon and may be associated with behavioral measurement and participant characteristics. Associations observed in this review should be evaluated empirically in future research. Such studies may inform minimal contact approaches to physical activity promotion.

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Daisuke Koizumi, Nicole L. Rogers, Michael E. Rogers, Mohammod M. Islam, Masanobu Kusunoki and Nobuo Takeshima

Background:

Although many Japanese older adults spend more than an hour each day walking for exercise, the intensity is often lower than the minimum level associated with various health benefits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a lifestyle physical activity intervention on improving quantity and quality of daily physical activity (DPA) as well as cardiorespiratory endurance in community-dwelling older women.

Methods:

68 women (60–78 yr of age) were randomly assigned to either a lifestyle physical activity intervention group (LIFE) or control group. During the 12-wk intervention, feedback based on accelerometer DPA data (number of daily steps (STEPS) and time spent performing daily moderate intensity physical activity (MPA) was provided to each participant in LIFE every two weeks. Cardiorespiratory endurance was evaluated using the 12-Minute Walk Test (12-MW).

Results:

Following the 12-wk intervention, significant group interactions were observed for STEPS, MPA, and cardiorespiratory endurance. LIFE increased STEPS by 16%, MPA by 53%, and the distance walked during the 12-MW by 10%.

Conclusions:

Promotion of DPA using accelerometers can significantly improve quantity and quality of daily physical activity as well as cardiorespiratory endurance in older women.