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Julia Aparecida Devide Nogueira and Teresa Helena Macedo da Costa

Background:

Body weight and composition are determined by genotype, environment, and energy balance. Physical activity or sedentary behavior have different associations with body weight, fat mass, and fat-free mass, a relationship that is not clear in adolescents. The aim of this study was to test the associations between gender, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and body composition in physically active adolescents.

Methods:

Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were measured in 326 physically active boys and girls age 11 to 15 years. All subjects answered a questionnaire assessing their usual daily activities for the last month. Time spent on each activity was used to estimate the physical activity level (PAL).

Results:

PAL was associated with body composition after adjustment for age and maturation, with differences between genders. For boys, PAL was positively and significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) and fat-free mass index (β= 0.14 and 0.15, respectively). For girls, PAL was negatively and significantly associated with BMI and fat mass index (β= −0.11 and −0.75, respectively). Sedentary behavior, expressed by hours of TV, videogame, and computer use, was not associated with any body-composition outcome for either gender.

Conclusion:

The accumulated amount of physical activity, but not of sedentary behavior, was related to body composition in active adolescents.

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Giovanni Mario Pes, Maria Pina Dore, Alessandra Errigo and Michel Poulain

energy expenditure (TEE) were directly provided by the device; the active energy expenditure of each subject was calculated as the TEE / REE ratio, defined as the Physical Activity Level (PAL). The REE was estimated by selecting a two-hour nighttime interval (from 4:00 to 6:00) when the subject was

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Hiroyuki Sagayama, Makiko Toguchi, Jun Yasukata, Kazunari Yonaha, Yasuki Higaki and Hiroaki Tanaka

expenditure (TEE) and physical activity level (PAL) accurately using a gold standard, such as the doubly labeled water (DLW) method ( Schoeller et al., 1986 ). An earlier study estimated that TEE was about 19.3 MJ/day (4,609 kcal/day) for offshore racing over 13 days using DLW methods measurements ( Branth et

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Denise Rodrigues Bueno, Maria de Fátima Nunes Marucci, Clara Suemi da Costa Rosa, Rômulo Araújo Fernandes, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira Duarte and Maria Lucia Lebão

prevalence of both arterial hypertension (HBP) and diabetes mellitus (DM) ( Nascimento et al., 2015 ). An insufficient physical activity level (PAL) can result in unfavorable control of these diseases, leading to a significant economic impact related to the associated complications ( Bertoldi et al., 2013

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Casey Mace, Ngaire Kerse, Ralph Maddison, Timothy Olds, Santosh Jatrana, Carol Wham, Mere Kepa, Anna Rolleston, Ruth Teh and Joanna Broad

Background:

Little is known about the physical activity levels and behaviors of advanced age New Zealanders.

Methods:

A cross-sectional analysis of data from Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand (LiLACS NZ), Te Puāwaitanga O Nga Tapuwae Kia ora Tonu, measures of physical activity (PASE) (n = 664, aged 80–90 [n = 254, Māori, aged 82.5(2), n = 410 non-Māori, aged 85(.5)]) was conducted to determine physical activity level (PAL). A substudy (n = 45) was conducted to attain detailed information about PAL and behaviors via the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults (MARCA) and accelerometry. The main study was analyzed by sex for Māori and non-Māori.

Results:

Men consistently had higher levels of physical activity than women for all physical activity measures. Sex was significant for different domains of activity.

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Peter S.W. Davies, Jian-Ying Feng, J. Anthony Crisp, Janice M.E. Day, Ann Laidlaw, Jidi Chen and Xiao-Peng Liu

The energy expenditure and hence energy requirements of 12 young Chinese gymnasts attending a specialized school in Beijing were assessed. Total energy expenditure was measured using the doubly labeled water technique and this, in conjunction with measures of basal metabolic rate (BMR), allows the calculation of a physical activity level (PAL). Mean PAL value for the gymnasts was 1.98, which is significantly different from published mean values found in nongymnast children of a similar age. This mean value is equivalent to very heavy levels of physical activity during the periods of training being undertaken. This is the first time that energy expenditure has been noninvasively measured in free-living young gymnasts. The data will be of use to sports scientists and nutritionists alike.

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Hiroyuki Sagayama, Genki Hamaguchi, Makiko Toguchi, Mamiko Ichikawa, Yosuke Yamada, Naoyuki Ebine, Yasuki Higaki and Hiroaki Tanaka

Total daily energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity level (PAL) are important for adequate nutritional management in athletes. The PAL of table tennis has been estimated to about 2.0: it is categorized as a moderateactivity sport (4.0 metabolic equivalents [METs]) in the Compendium of Physical Activities. However, modern table tennis makes high physiological demands. The aims of the current study were to examine (1) TEE and PAL of competitive table tennis players and (2) the physiological demands of various types of table tennis practice. In Experiment 1, we measured TEE and PAL in 10 Japanese college competitive table tennis players (aged 19.9 ± 1.1 years) using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method during training and with an exercise training log and self-reported energy intake. TEE was 15.5 ± 1.9 MJ·day-1 (3695 ± 449 kcal·day-1); PAL was 2.53 ± 0.25; and the average training duration was 181 ± 38 min·day-1. In Experiment 2, we measured METs of five different practices in seven college competition players (20.6 ± 1.2 years). Three practices without footwork were 4.5–5.2 METs, and two practices with footwork were 9.5–11.5 METs. Table tennis practices averaged 7.1 ± 3.2 METS demonstrating similarities with other vigorous racket sports. In conclusion the current Compendium of Physical Activities underestimates the physiological demands of table tennis practice for competition; the estimated energy requirement should be based on DLW method data.

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Casey Jordan Mace, Ralph Maddison, Timothy Olds and Ngaire Kerse

Background:

The Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults (MARCA) is a computerized recall instrument that records use of time during 24 hr the previous day and has been developed to address limitations of current self-report physical activity measures for those in advanced age.

Methods:

Test–retest reliability and convergent validity of the adult MARCA were assessed in a sample of 45 advanced-age adults (age 84.9 SD ± 1.62 yr) as a subsample of the Life and Living in Advanced-Age Cohort Study New Zealand (LiLACS NZ). Test–retest methods required participants to recall the previous day’s activity using the MARCA twice within the same day. Convergent validity was assessed against accelerometry.

Results:

Test–retest reliability was high, with ICCs greater than .99 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and physical activity level (PAL). Compared with accelerometry, the MARCA demonstrated validity comparable to other self-report instruments with Spearman’s coefficients of .34 and .59 for time spent in nonsedentary physical activity and PAL.

Conclusion:

The MARCA is a valid and reliable self-report tool for physical activity behaviors in advanced-age adults.

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Pouya Saeedi, Mohd Nasir Mohd Taib and Hazizi Abu Saad

Nutritional supplement (NS) use has increased among the general population, athletes, and fitness club participants and has become a widespread and acceptable behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in sociodemographic, health-related, and psychological factors between NS users and nonusers. A case-control study design was used, whereby participants included 147 NS users (cases) and 147 nonusers (controls) age 18 yr and above who exercised at least 3 d/wk in 24 fitness clubs in Tehran. A self-administered pretested and validated questionnaire was used to collect data. The results showed that on average, NS users were younger (29.8 ± 9.5 yr) than nonusers (35.5 ± 12.2 yr). Logistic-regression analysis showed that NS use was significantly associated with moderate or high physical activity level (PAL), smoking, gender, eating attitude, and age. In conclusion, NS users were more likely to be female, younger, and smokers; to have moderate or high PAL; and to be more prone to eating disorders than nonusers.

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Stijn De Baere, Jan Seghers, Renaat Philippaerts, Kristine De Martelaer and Johan Lefevre

Background:

to investigate levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in 10- to 14-year-olds and to determine PA differences between week-weekend days, genders and school stages.

Methods:

241 children were recruited from 15 primary and 15 secondary schools. PA was assessed for 7 days using the SenseWear Mini Armband and an electronic diary. Week-weekend and gender differences were determined using 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Combined intensity- and domain-specific PA differences between genders and school stages were examined using 2-way ANOVA.

Results:

Weekdays were more active compared with weekend days. Physical activity level (PAL) of boys was higher compared with girls. Boys showed more moderate (+15 min/day) and vigorous PA (+9 min/day), no differences were found for SB and light PA. Secondary school children showed more SB (+111 min/day), moderate (+8 min/day) and vigorous (+9 min/day) PA and less light PA (-66 min/day) compared with primary school children. No difference was found for PAL. The results of the combined intensity- and domain-specific parameters revealed more nuanced differences between genders and school stages.

Conclusions:

Our results demonstrate the complexity of PA and SB behavior of children, indicating the need for a multidimensional and differentiated approach in PA promotion.