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Christy Haley and Ross Andel

The authors examined factors related to participation in walking, gardening or yard work, and sports or exercise in 686 community-dwelling adults 60–95 years of age from Wave IV of the population-based Americans’ Changing Lives Study. Logistic regression revealed that male gender, being married, and better functional health were associated with greater likelihood of participating in gardening or yard work (p < .05). Male gender, better functional health, and lower body-mass index were independently associated with greater likelihood of walking (p < .05). Increasing age, male gender, higher education, and better functional health were associated with greater likelihood of participating in sports or exercise (p < .05). Subsequent analyses yielded an interaction of functional health by gender in sport or exercise participation (p = .06), suggesting a greater association between functional health and participation in men. Gender and functional health appear to be particularly important for physical activity participation, which may be useful in guiding future research. Attention to different subgroups may be needed to promote participation in specific activities.

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Xihe Zhu and Ang Chen

This study examined the relation between adolescent expectancy-value motivation, achievements, and after-school physical activity participation. Adolescents (N = 854) from 12 middle schools completed an expectancy-value motivation questionnaire, pre and posttests in psychomotor skill and health-related fitness knowledge tests, and a three-day after-school Physical Activity Recall. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling to test an a priori model. Results revealed that expectancy belief significantly predicted adolescent psychomotor achievement, and that psychomotor achievement was the only direct significant predictor for physical activity participation (p < .05). Expectancy belief and task values were not significantly directly associated with adolescent physical activity participation (p > .05). The findings suggested the relation between adolescent expectancy-value motivation and physical activity participation is likely to be mediated by their psychomotor skill achievement.

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David A. Dzewaltowski, John M. Noble and Jeff M. Shaw

Social cognitive theory and the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were examined in the prediction of 4 weeks of physical activity participation. The theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were supported. Attitude and perceived control predicted intention, and intention predicted physical activity participation. The social cognitive theory variables significantly predicted physical activity participation, with self-efficacy and self-evaluation of the behavior significantly contributing to the prediction. The greater the confidence in participating in physical activity and the greater the satisfaction with present physical activity, the more physical activity performed. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived control and intentions did not account for any unique variation in physical activity participation over self-efficacy. Therefore the social cognitive theory constructs were better predictors of physical activity than those from the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.

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Cristina Caperchoine, William K. Mummery and Kelly Joyner

Background:

The Women’s Active Living Kits (WALK) Pilot Program was an Australian federal government initiative designed to identify an effective model for extending physical activity participation in government identified priority women’s groups. The purpose of this study is to address the barriers and challenges to physical activity participation in selected priority women’s groups and present possible strategies to assist with engaging these groups in physical activity.

Methods:

Ten focus group evaluation sessions were undertaken with priority women’s groups who took part in the WALK program. Participants were encouraged to share their opinions, perceptions and beliefs regarding their physical activity behaviors, in a semistructured, open table discussion.

Results:

Participants reported a number of psychological and cognitive, sociocultural, and environmental factors which restricted their participation in physical activity. Participants also highlighted strategies they felt would enable physical activity participation.

Conclusions:

These findings are valuable and should be used as a platform to inform the design and implementation of future physical activity interventions for priority women’s groups.

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Zan Gao and Ping Xiang

Background:

Exergaming has been considered a fun solution to promoting a physically active lifestyle. This study examined the impact of an exergaming-based program on urban children’s physical activity participation, body composition and perceptions of the program.

Methods:

A sample of 185 children’s physical activity was measured in August 2009 (pretest), and percent body fat was used as index of body composition. Fourth graders were assigned to intervention group engaging in 30 minutes exergaming-based activities 3 times per week, while third and fifth graders were in comparison group. Measurements were repeated 9 months later (posttest). Interviews were conducted among 12 intervention children.

Results:

ANCOVA with repeated measures revealed a significant main effect for intervention, F(1, 179) = 10.69, P < .01. Specifically, intervention children had significantly greater increased physical activity levels than comparison children. Logistic regression for body composition indicated intervention children did not differ significantly in percent body fat change from comparison children, Chi square = 5.42, P = .14. Children interviewed reported positive attitudes toward the intervention.

Conclusions:

The implementation of exergaming-based program could have a significantly positive effect on children’s physical activity participation and attitudes. Meanwhile, long-term effect of the program on children’s body composition deserves further investigation.

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Emma Burnett, Jenny White and Joanna Scurr

Background:

The importance of physical activity is well known.1 However, previous research suggests that breast movement during exercise can be painful, embarrassing, and anecdotally deter exercise participation.2,3 Therefore, this research investigates whether the breast influences physical activity participation.

Methods:

Female respondents (n = 249) completed a breast health and physical activity survey assessing bras and bra fit, physical activity, breast pain, comments and improvements, breast history, and demographics.

Results:

Results found that the breast was a barrier to physical activity participation for 17% of women. “I can’t find the right sports bra” and “I am embarrassed by excessive breast movement” were the most influential breast related barriers to activity. Breast pain increased with vigorous activity and poor breast support. Breast health knowledge increased the use of a sports bra and levels of physical activity.

Conclusions:

The breast was the fourth greatest barrier to physical activity, behind energy/motivation (first), time constraints (second), and health (third), despite its omission from previous physical activity literature. As 33% of women were not meeting physical activity guidelines, increasing breast health knowledge may reduce barriers to physical activity.

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Simon Driver

The purpose was to examine psychosocial factors that influence the physical activity behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Two differing models, based on Harter’s model of self-worth, were proposed to examine the relationship between perceived competence, social support, physical self-worth, affect, and motivation. Adults numbering 384 with brain injuries completed a series of questionnaires measuring each psychosocial variable. The structural analysis indicated a nonsignificant chi squared value and good fit indices for model two which included affect as the mediating variable. Findings indicate that affect is critical in shaping the physical activity cognitions and behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Suggestions are made on practical ways to enhance affect and subsequently physical activity participation.

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Jill M. Dempsey, Jay C. Kimiecik and Thelma S. Horn

This investigation examined parental influence on children’s moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation via an expectancy-value model that included parents’ behavior, parents’ beliefs about their children’s MVPA, and children’s beliefs about their MVPA. The influence of parents on their children’s MVPA was investigated via questionnaires tapping the belief systems of fourth- and fifth-grade children (n=71) and their parents (n=69). Self-reported MVPA was assessed for parents and children. Correlational analyses demonstrated a number of significant relationships between parents’ belief systems and children’s MVPA behavior and children’s belief systems and their physical activity participation. Based on hierarchical regression analyses, there was no evidence of a positive relationship between parents’ physical activity behavior (role modeling) and children’s physical activity behavior. Parents’ perceptions of their children’s MVPA competence was the only parent belief system variable related to children’s MVPA participation. In addition, children’s task orientation and expectancies significantly predicted their MVPA participation.

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Rebecca E. Hasson

, Bradley, Houts, McRitchie, & O’Brien, 2008 ). This equates to a 75% drop during the critical period of adolescence ( Nader et al., 2008 ). Children’s physical activity also varies by ethnicity, but evidence of systematic disparities in physical activity participation is less consistent ( Troiano et

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Karl Spiteri, David Broom, Amira Hassan Bekhet, John Xerri de Caro, Bob Laventure and Kate Grafton

chronic diseases . Comprehensive Physiology, 2 ( 2 ), 1143 – 1211 . PubMed ID: 23798298 doi:10.1002/cphy.c110025.Lack Bopp , M. , Lattimore , D. , Wilcox , S. , Laken , M. , McClorin , L. , Swinton , R. , … Bryant , D. ( 2007 ). Understanding physical activity participation in members