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Asmita Patel, Grant M. Schofield, Gregory S. Kolt and Justin W.L. Keogh

This study examined whether perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity differed based on allocation to 2 different types of primary-care activity-prescription programs (pedometer-based vs. time-based Green Prescription). Eighty participants from the Healthy Steps study completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Factor analysis was carried out to identify common themes of barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Factor scores were then used to explore between-groups differences for perceived barriers, benefits, and motives based on group allocation and demographic variables. No significant differences were found in factor scores based on allocation. Demographic variables relating to the existence of chronic health conditions, weight status, and older age were found to significantly influence perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Findings suggest that the addition of a pedometer to the standard Green Prescription does not appear to increase perceived motives or benefits or decrease perceived barriers for physical activity in low-active older adults.

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Dac Minh Tuan Nguyen, Virgile Lecoultre, Andrew P. Hills and Yves Schutz

Background:

Increases in physical activity (PA) are promoted by walking in an outdoor environment. Along with walking speed, slope is a major determinant of exercise intensity, and energy expenditure. The hypothesis was that in free-living conditions, a hilly environment diminishes PA to a greater extent in obese (OB) when compared with control (CO) individuals.

Methods:

To assess PA types and patterns, 28 CO (22 ± 2 kg/m2) and 14 OB (33 ± 4 kg/m2) individuals wore during an entire day 2 accelerometers and 1 GPS device, around respectively their waist, ankle and shoulder. They performed their usual PA and were asked to walk an additional 60 min per day.

Results:

The duration of inactivity and activity with OB individuals tended to be, respectively, higher and lower than that of CO individuals (P = .06). Both groups spent less time walking uphill/downhill than on the level (20%, 19%, vs. 61% of total walking duration, respectively, P < .001). However OB individuals spent less time walking uphill/downhill per day than CO (25 ± 15 and 38 ± 15 min/d, respectively, P < 0.05) and covered a shorter distance per day (3.8 km vs 5.2 km, P < 0.01).

Conclusions:

BMI and outdoor topography should also be considered when prescribing extra walking in free-living conditions.

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Whitney A. Welch, Scott J. Strath, Michael Brondino, Renee Walker and Ann M. Swartz

Background: Older adults spend 30% of their day in light-intensity physical activity (LPA). This study was designed to determine if increasing the proportion of time spent in LPA would affect glucose control. Methods: Older adults (N = 9) completed four 3-hour treatment conditions consisting of a seated control and 3 randomized conditions: (1) 20% time spent in continuous LPA, 80% seated; (2) 40% time spent in continuous LPA, 60% seated; and (3) 60% time spent in continuous LPA, 40% seated. Energy expenditure was measured continuously, and glucose was measured prior to mixed-meal ingestion and hourly thereafter. Glucose area under the curve was compared between conditions using Friedman test. Results: There was a significant difference in glucose area under the curve by time spent in LPA (P < .001); specifically, between the seated and 60% LPA (mean difference = 35.0 [24.6] mg/dL, P = .01), seated and 40% LPA (mean difference = 25.2 [11.8] mg/dL, P = .03), seated and 20% LPA (mean difference = 17.8 [22.5] mg/dL, P = .03), 20% LPA and 60% LPA (mean difference = 17.2 [22.5] mg/dL, P = .01), and 40% LPA and 60% LPA (mean difference = 9.8 [7.3] mg/dL, P = .01). Conclusion: These results provide experimental evidence to the importance LPA has on metabolic health. If older adults who already spend, on average, about 3 hours per day in LPA, further increase their LPA, they could see benefit to glucose control.

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Pilar Lavielle Sotomayor, Gerardo Huitron Bravo, Analí López Fernández and Juan Talavera Piña

. 7 In addition, promotion of PA by physicians increases PA in sedentary adults. 8 Physical activity prescription (PAP) should be comparable with drug prescription, representing a complementary, cost-effective method with few side effects when adhering to clinical guidelines. 9 The potential of PAP

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Alain Varray and Alain Varray

The aim of this paper is to show how pertinent pathophysiological bases have been built for physical activity prescription for individuals with obstructive pulmonary disease (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The pathophysiological bases were constructed by taking into account exercise mismatching, which was analyzed in terms of both short- and long-term impact on disease outcome. Specific exercise adaptations based on a keen understanding of the underlying physiological processes provided the key to an adapted intervention with well-defined exercise program aims. The results that were achieved are striking, and one might conclude that sometimes exercise is simply the best way to improve the general well-being of individuals with chronic disease. Since this is a major concern for health professionals and chronically ill individuals, physical activity offers a means to rise to this challenge.

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Samantha M. Gray, Peggy Chen, Lena Fleig, Paul A. Gardiner, Megan M. McAllister, Joseph H. Puyat, Joanie Sims-Gould, Heather A. McKay, Meghan Winters and Maureen C. Ashe

this study and then randomized via a web-based independent system to intervention (n = 13) or control (n = 12) group. The intervention consisted of 3 parts: group-based education and social support sessions, individualized physical activity prescription, and self-monitoring of behavior using an

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Esra Uzelpasaci, Türkan Akbayrak, Serap Özgül, Ceren Orhan, Emine Baran, Gülbala Nakip, Sinan Beksac and Semra Topuz

extremities, shortens labor, and reduces the stillbirth rate. 3 – 6 In addition, physical activity promotes fetal development by modulating the intrauterine environment. 3 Therefore, physical activity prescriptions should be made specifically for each pregnant women by medical professionals taking into

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Roger J. Paxton, Jeri E. Forster, Matthew J. Miller, Kristine L. Gerron, Jennifer E. Stevens-Lapsley and Cory L. Christiansen

et al., 2011 ; Thorup et al., 2016 ). For example, Ashe et al. were able to elicit a 26% (1,204 steps/day) increase in steps taken per day by using a Fitbit sensor in combination with physical activity prescription in healthy, inactive women aged 55–70 years over the course of 3 months ( Ashe et

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Robert J. Kowalsky, Sophy J. Perdomo, John M. Taormina, Christopher E. Kline, Andrea L. Hergenroeder, Jeffrey R. Balzer, John M. Jakicic and Bethany Barone Gibbs

starting with 10 to 15 minutes per hour. This progressive approach would be consistent with recommendations for the adoption of other physical activity prescriptions. However, more research is needed to determine if this method would attenuate increases in lower leg discomfort that may occur with the use

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Aston K. McCullough and Carol Ewing Garber

), 100% (18) received true positive screenings for risk of insufficient daily PA. No child 0% (0) would have received a physical activity prescription in error. Table 2 Accuracy of the 2-step Cascaded PHIT Decision Tree in 24- to 35-Month-Olds Attending an Early Head Start Program in a Major Urban Center