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Phillip Post and Rebecca Palacios

physical activity programming for children. Addressing childhood inactivity offers not only short-term health benefits but also long-term benefits, given that children who are active are more likely to be active in adolescence ( Gordon-Larsen, Nelson, & Popkin, 2004 ). As a majority of children in the

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Jordan Deneau, Sean Horton and Paula M. van Wyk

level of physical activity involvement, perspectives on leisure in later life are influenced by variables such as gender, age, and health status. Specifically, there is insufficient knowledge regarding older men’s opinions on physical activity programs ( Bredland, Magnus, & Vik, 2015 ; Bottorff et

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Ja Youn Kwon, Pamela H. Kulinna, Hans van der Mars, Audrey Amrein-Beardsley and Mirka Koro-Ljungberg

categories of courses. CSPAP indicates comprehensive school physical activity program. Separate Courses Related to CSPAP Beyond the physical education component in the CSPAP model, 99 programs (68.8%) indicated that they did not have any separate courses for other components of CSPAP (see Figure  2 ). With

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Michelle E. Jordan, Kent Lorenz, Michalis Stylianou and Pamela Hodges Kulinna

). Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) has been adopted as the national framework in the USA ( CDC, 2015 ). This study was part of a larger program of research investigating a CSPAP ( CDC, 2013 ) change effort in one rural school district. Previous analyses from this research program indicate

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Ayse Meydanlioglu and Ayse Ergun

. 21 – 24 However, the number of school-based studies aimed to develop nutrition and physical activity in Turkey is limited. 25 – 26 The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the “Diet and Physical Activity Program for Health” (DAPAPH), prepared in accordance with the CATCH program

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Johan de Jong, Martin Stevens, Koen A.P.M. Lemmink, Mathieu H.G. de Greef, Piet Rispens and Theo Mulder


The Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) was developed to stimulate physical activity in sedentary and underactive older adults. The GALM physical activity program was primarily based on an evolutionary–biological play theory and insights from social cognitive theory. The purpose of this study was to assess the intensity of the GALM program.


Data from 15 GALM sessions were obtained by means of heart rate monitors.


Data of 97 program participants (mean age: 60.1 y) were analyzed. The overall mean intensity for the GALM program was 73.7% of the predicted heart rate maximum and 6% of the monitored heart rate time could be classified as light, 33% as moderate and 61% as hard.


The GALM program met the intensity guidelines to increase cardiorespiratory fitness. The intensity and attractiveness of this physical activity program make it an interesting alternative for stimulating physical activity in sedentary and underactive older adults.

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Keith Hill, Robyn Smith, Marcia Fearn, Mary Rydberg and Rachael Oliphant

This study evaluated health benefits of a supported physical activity program for 116 older carers (mean age 64.4 [SD = 7.9], 85% women). Participants undertook a 6-month center-based physical activity program (strength training, yoga, or Tai Chi). Eighty-eight participants (76%) completed the program. Multivariate repeated-measures ANOVA identified overall significant improvement postint-ervention (p = .004). Univariate analyses revealed significant improvements for balance, strength, gait endurance, depression, and SF-36 (physical component; p < .05). There was no change in the Zarit Carer Burden Scale (p > .05). Change in performance scores did not differ significantly between those with higher and lower attendance at classes, although there was significantly greater improvement in gait endurance and balance (p < .05) in those attending classes run twice weekly than in those attending once-weekly classes. In conclusion, a carer physical activity program, providing additional carer support to facilitate participation, can achieve high levels of involvement by carers and significant health benefits.

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Mihalis Atsalakis and Mike Sleap

Community physical activity programs are a means by which children may be provided with appropriate physical activity, although it is not yet known how children register in these programs. In this research, registration of young children in community physical activity programs was assumed to be a product of decisions made by their parents. The purpose of the research was to explore the usefulness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting registration of children in a community physical activity program from decisions made by their parents. A simple random sample of 400 first-grade elementary school children resident in Heraklion, Crete, was selected. Their parents completed a questionnaire corresponding to the framework of the theory of planned behavior. It was concluded that the theory of planned behavior is valid in predicting the defined behavior.

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Sarah A. Doolittle and Paul B. Rukavina

This single case study (Yin, 2009) compares an established urban physical education/sport/physical activity program with two models: Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program/CSPAP (AAHPERD, 2013; CDC, 2013); and Lawson’s propositions (2005) for sport, exercise and physical education for empowerment and community development to determine their applicability in urban schools. Data include semistructured interviews, multiple observations, and artifacts collected over two academic years. Triangulation, peer debriefing, and interpretative and member checks were used for trustworthiness. Findings indicate that most aspects of both theories were evident in the program, though goals exceeded those of CSPAP as stated, and Lawson’s concept of “community” was limited. Major themes related to establishing this CSPAP are described, including practical strategies for budget, scheduling and staffing, and qualities of leadership. Stakeholders reported that they valued the program not for student wellness, but for personal, social and academic well being, as well as for contributions to the school culture.

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Laura A. Linnan and Bess Marcus

Most adults in the U.S. are employed and spend many hours at work. Worksite-based physical activity programs have achieved modest success but are limited because they have not kept pace with changing work environments and workforce characteristics, or have problems with design, measurement, and analysis issues. This paper briefly identifies current gaps in knowledge and practice with worksite-based physical activity, including a lack of focus on the needs of older workers. Recommendations are offered for increasing worksite-based physical activity: creating partnerships with workers, management, labor, and managed care representatives to address physical activity needs; embedding physical activity programs within comprehensive health programs and employer-sponsored benefits packages; creating opportunities for small businesses; linking to larger efforts to support physical activity at the company/community level; and increasing collaborations and the political will required to conduct well-designed research to identify successful intervention strategies.