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Kym Joanne Price, Brett Ashley Gordon, Kim Gray, Kerri Gergely, Stephen Richard Bird, and Amanda Clare Benson

-reported data on physical function from individuals recovering from an acute cardiac event ( Jette & Downing, 1994 ; Pepin, Alexander, & Phillips, 2004 ). In addition, physical capacity appears to be associated with the type of treatment, as patients receiving cardiac surgery typically have lower exercise

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Viviane Ribeiro de Ávila, Teresa Bento, Wellington Gomes, José Leitão, and Nelson Fortuna de Sousa

patients with surgically treated AF reported significant limitations on functional and physical capacity over time (Figure  2A and 2B ). 21 , 26 – 29 As shown in Table  1 , however, one study 29 reported significant differences in functional and physical capacity only in elderly (65 y and older) female

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Lauren M. Robins, Ted Brown, Aislinn F. Lalor, Rene Stolwyk, Fiona McDermott, and Terry Haines

( Barnes et al., 2006 ; Havens, Hall, Sylvestre, & Jivan, 2004 ; Nicholson, 2012 ). Restrictions in physical capacity, such as in the performance of activities of daily living (ADLs) have been demonstrated to significantly increase the risk for social isolation ( Jang et al., 2015 ). Impairments in

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Giovanna Ghiani, Sara Magnani, Azzurra Doneddu, Gianmarco Sainas, Virginia Pinna, Marco Caboi, Girolamo Palazzolo, Filippo Tocco, and Antonio Crisafulli

). Therefore, as for many sport activities, the nutritional status and the physical capacity of the athlete are important for good performance. These features can be controlled and maintained using several interventions ( Ghiani et al., 2015 ). In this report, we describe the changes in the physical capacity

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Wael Maktouf, Sylvain Durand, Bruno Beaune, and Sébastien Boyas

-related postural control deteriorations 23 – 27 and increases risk of fall. 28 Nevertheless, authors did not investigate dynamic postural control nor the potential beneficial effects of physical activity (PA) on postural control and functional and physical capacities in obese older adults. Several authors

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Inès Boukabous, Alexis Marcotte-Chénard, Taha Amamou, Pierre Boulay, Martin Brochu, Daniel Tessier, Isabelle Dionne, and Eléonor Riesco

stable throughout the intervention. Discussion The main purpose of the study was to compare the impact of a short-term low-volume HIIT on FM, cardiometabolic profile, and physical capacity in inactive and healthy older women with abdominal obesity and confirm its feasibility compared with MICT. To our

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Thomas Yvert, Catalina Santiago, Elena Santana-Sosa, Zoraida Verde, Felix Gómez-Gallego, Luis Lopez-Mojares, Margarita Pérez, Nuria Garatachea, and Alejandro Lucia

In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), physical capacity (PC) has been correlated with mortality risk. In turn, PC is dependent on genetic factors. This study examines several polymorphisms associated with PC and healthrelated phenotype traits (VO2peak, FEV1, FVC, PImax and muscular strength) in a group of children with CF (n = 66, primary purpose). The same analyses were also performed in a control group of healthy children (n = 113, secondary purpose). The polymorphisms determined were classified as muscle function polymorphisms (ACE rs1799752; AGT rs699; ACTN3 rs1815739; PTK2 rs7843014 and rs7460; MSTN rs1805086; TRHR rs7832552; NOS3 rs2070744) or energy metabolism polymorphisms (PPARGC1A rs8192678; NRF1 rs6949152; NRF2 rs12594956; TFAM rs1937; PPARD rs2267668; ACSL1 rs6552828). No significant polymorphism/phenotype correlations were detected in children with CF, with marginal associations being observed between NOS3 rs2070744 and VO2peak and FEV1, as well as between PPARGC1A rs8192678 and FEV1. Overall, similar findings were observed in the control group, i.e., no major associations. The PC-related polymorphisms examined seem to have no effects on the PC or health of children with CF.

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Alistair P. Murphy, Rob Duffield, Aaron Kellett, Dani Gescheit, and Machar Reid

Purpose:

Difficulties in preserving physical capacities while on tennis tours necessitate targeted training prescription. This study analyzed training and match loads performed before and on tour for their relationship with posttour physical-capacity changes. A secondary aim was to determine whether the presence of a strength and conditioning (S&C) coach affected the type and volume of on-tour training load.

Methods:

The training and match loads of 30 high-performance junior tennis players were recorded over 8 wk: 4 wk before and 4 wk during an international tour. Fitness tests were conducted pretour and posttour, including double and single-leg (dominant and nondominant) countermovement jump, speed (5, 10, and 20 m), modified 5-0-5 agility, 10 × 20-m repeated-sprint ability, and multistage fitness tests. Tour training and match loads were categorized according to whether S&C support was present or absent.

Results:

Total and tennis training loads were significantly greater on tour than pretour (P ≤ .05, d > 0.8). Increases in on-tour, on-court training loads were moderately correlated with decrements in speed and aerobic power (r = .31-.52). Finally, S&C presence on tour significantly increased total, on-court, and off-court training load completed (P ≤ .05, d > 0.8).

Conclusions:

Training loads should be carefully prescribed to ensure that sufficient total and tennis loads are completed pretour. Specifically, speed and aerobic capacities may regress with increased training on tour. Finally, a practical observation was that on-tour S&C support resulted in increased S&C training load (around match loads), potentially countering the observed regression of physical capacities. Such a finding has the capacity to alter current physical-preparation structures in high-performance tennis environments with finite resources.

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Christine B. Stopka, Kimberly L. Zambito, David G. Suro, Kevin S. Pearson, Ronald A. Siders, and Buffy H. Goff

The purpose of this study was to evaluate gains in muscular endurance and physical capacity to perform work in 22 adolescents and young adults (ages 13-22 years) with MR. The participants were tested before and after two consecutive 3-week sessions of supervised resistance training. Specific muscle strength was evaluated using a three repetition maximum (3RM) test, and muscular endurance was assessed using a repetition to failure (RF) test at 60% of the 3RM. The chest press, leg extension, and torso arm exercises were tested. Participants trained twice per week during the training intervals. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA for repeated measures. Significant increases (p ≤ .05) in 3RM, RF, and total work performed during the RF test were found for the leg extension and torso arm exercises. Significant increases (p ≤ .05) in RF performance and total work performed during the RF test were found in the chest press. These results demonstrate that adolescents and young adults with MR can experience significant gains in muscular strength and endurance through a supervised resistance training program.

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Alistair P. Murphy, Rob Duffield, Aaron Kellett, and Machar Reid

Purpose:

Given the travel that punctuates junior tennis development, an understanding of the changes in fitness owing to touring and the association between training loads (TLs) and fitness on return is vital. The authors investigated physical-capacity changes from pretour to posttour, determining if those changes were related to the TL of athletes on tour.

Methods:

Thirty junior athletes completed fitness testing before and after 4-wk tours. Testing included double-leg countermovement jump (CMJ), dominant single-leg and nondominant single-leg CMJ, speed (5, 10, 20 m), modified 5-0-5 agility (left and right), 10 × 20-m repeated-sprint ability (RSA), and multistage fitness tests. Repeated-measures ANOVAs determined physical-capacity change, with effect-size analysis establishing the magnitude of change. To avoid regression toward the mean, a 1/3-split technique was implemented for comparative analysis (high to low TLs).

Results:

Moderate effects (d = 0.50–0.70) for reductions of up to 3.6% in 5-, 10-, and 20-m speeds were observed. However, all remaining changes were only of trivial to small magnitude (d < 0.40). Closer analysis of the interaction between TL and physical capacities (1/3-split) revealed that subjects who completed the greatest amount of total and tennis TL returned with a greater decline in speed and aerobic capacities (d > 0.80). Furthermore, it was observed that match load dictates on- and off-court TL, with an increase in matches won understandably stunting exposure to off-court TL.

Conclusions:

Specific training should be prescribed on tour to maintain speed characteristics over a 4-wk international tour. On-tour training schedules should be carefully monitored to maximize specific TL exposure after losses on tour.