The anthropometric and physical characteristics of rugby league players, including stature, body mass, body composition, speed, strength, power, change-of-direction speed, and intermittent running ability, 1 can influence career progression, 2 , 3 discriminate between selected and nonselected
Nick Dobbin, Jamie Highton, Samantha Louise Moss and Craig Twist
Rich D. Johnston
course of a game is likely to be vital for success. Although the execution of effective skills is associated with success, 4 and strength and power related to good tackle technique, 7 the impact technical errors have on match outcome and the role physical characteristics play in error rates are
Dale B. Read, Ben Jones, Sean Williams, Padraic J. Phibbs, Josh D. Darrall-Jones, Greg A.B. Roe, Jonathon J.S. Weakley, Andrew Rock and Kevin Till
The physical characteristics of match play (ie, running and collisions) in age-grade (eg, U18 [under-18]) rugby union players is a growing area of research. 1 – 3 Studies using global positioning systems (GPS) have published data from county representative, 4 school, 5 academy, 2 and
Nick Dobbin, Jamie Highton, Samantha L. Moss and Craig Twist
, 8 The anthropometric and physical characteristics of rugby league players appear important and can discriminate between playing standards, 9 – 11 positions, 12 , 13 those selected and not selected onto a TID program, 14 and age categories. 15 For example, Tredrea et al 14 observed that those
Cynthia M. Ferrara and Emily Hollingsworth
To examine relationships between physical characteristics and injuries in adult figure skaters.
One hundred thirty adult figure skaters (113 women and 17 men, 43 ± 9 and 55 ± 10 y old, respectively) completed study questionnaires concerning health, height and weight, exercise habits, and injuries in the preceding year.
The men were older and taller and weighed more than the women (P < .05). Approximately 80% had normal body-mass index (BMI, weight [kg]/height [m]2), and the other 20% were overweight or obese based on BMI. Study participants had been skating for 12 ± 10 y (range 1 to 68 y). Most skate 4 to 5 h/wk (competitive > recreational skaters, P < .05). Although approximately 50% of competitive skaters always warm up or stretch before skating, less than 30% of the recreational skaters always do so (P < .05). Seventy-two skaters (56%) reported at least 1 injury in the preceding year. Most of the injuries were acute injuries to the lower extremity and were related to skating (76%). There were no differences in the incidence of stretching or warm-up activities or the number of hours per week spent skating in those who had incurred a skating-related injury compared with those who had not been injured (P > .05).
The results suggest that adult skaters have training and exercise habits that might increase their risk of injury and impair athletic performance. This suggests the importance of educational programming for adult skaters designed to address injury prevention and basic exercise-training principles.
Alex Ross, Nicholas D. Gill and John B. Cronin
Anthropometrical and physical characteristics have been used to distinguish players of different competition levels and position groups; however, there is no literature on rugby sevens.
To compare the anthropometrical and physical characteristics of international and provincial rugby sevens players and between forwards and backs.
To assess whether differences exist, 65 rugby sevens players including 22 international players and 43 provincial-level players were assessed for height, mass, body composition, speed, repeated-sprint ability, lower-body power, upper-body strength, and maximal aerobic endurance during in-season preparation for tournaments.
Clear differences (2.8−32%; small to very large effect sizes) were observed in all anthropometrical and physical measures between international and provincial players, with the largest differences observed in repeated-sprint ability (5.7%; very large effect size), 40-m-sprint time (4.4%; large effect size), 50-kg squat-jump peak power (32%; large effect size), and multistage fitness-test performance (19%; large effect size). Fewer and smaller differences (0.7−14%; trivial to large effect sizes) were found when comparing forwards and backs, with body height being the most discriminant characteristic (3.5%; large effect size).
Lower-level rugby sevens players should seek to improve their overall physical profile, particularly their repeated-sprint ability, to reach higher levels in rugby sevens. Furthermore, positional status may have little importance when preparing for rugby sevens.
Gal Ziv and Ronnie Lidor
The soccer goalkeeper (GK) is required to perform strenuous actions during practice sessions and actual games. One of the objectives of those professionals who work with GKs is to obtain relevant information on physical characteristics and physiological attributes of GKs, and to use it effectively when planning training programs for them. This article has three purposes: (a) to review a series of studies (n = 23) on physical characteristics, physiological attributes, and on-field performances of soccer GKs; (b) to outline a number of methodological limitations and research concerns associated with these studies; and (c) to suggest several practical recommendations for soccer coaches who work with GKs. Four main fndings emerged from our review: (a) professional adult GKs usually are over 180 cm tall and have a body mass of over 77 kg; (b) studies on agility and speed produced mixed results, with some showing similar values between GKs and field players and others showing reduced performance in GKs; (c) GKs usually have higher vertical jump values when compared with players playing the various field positions; (d) GKs cover approximately 5.5 km during a game, mostly by walking and jogging. Four methodological limitations and research concerns associated with the reviewed studies were discussed, among them the lack of a longitudinal approach and the lack of on-field performance studies. Three practical recommendations are made for coaches, one of which is that coaches should adopt a careful approach when selecting testing protocols and devices for the assessment of GKs’ physiological attributes.
Ronnie Lidor and Gal Ziv
The purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 31) on physical characteristics, physiological attributes, and volleyball skills of female and male adolescent volleyball players. Among the main findings were (a) that male national players were taller and heavier than state and novice players, while female national players showed lower body fat values compared with state and novice players, and (b) vertical jump values were higher in starters versus nonstarters. Among the methodological concerns based on the reviewed studies were the lack of information on maturational age and lack of longitudinal studies. It was recommended that a careful selection of physiological tests should be made when assessing the abilities of adolescent volleyball players.
Katherine A. Beals and Melinda M. Manore
The purpose of this study was to delineate and further define the behavioral, psychological, and physical characteristics of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders. Subjects consisted of 24 athletes with subclinical eating disorders (SCED) and 24 control athletes. Group classification was determined by scores on the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), and a symptom checklist for eating disorders (EDI-SC). Characteristics representative of the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders were derived from an extensive health and dieting history questionnaire and an in-depth interview (the Eating Disorder Examination). Energy intake and expenditure (kcal/d) were estimated using 7-day weighed food records and activity logs. The characteristics most common in the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders included: (a) preoccupation with food, energy intake, and body weight; (b) distorted body image and body weight dissatisfaction; (c) undue influence of body weight on self-evaluation; (d) intense fear of gaining weight even though at or slightly below (-5%) normal weight; (e) attempts to lose weight using one or more pathogenic weight control methods; (g) food intake governed by strict dietary rules, accompanied by extreme feelings of guilt and self-hatred upon breaking a rule; (h) absence of medical disorder to explain energy restriction, weight loss, or maintenance of low body weight; and (i) menstrual dysfunction. Awareness of these characteristics may aid in more timely identification and treatment of female athletes with disordered eating patterns and, perhaps, prevent the development of more serious, clinical eating disorders.
Geoff P. Lovell, John K. Parker and Gary J. Slater
Research in sports-science disciplines such as sport psychology has demonstrated that practitioners’ physical characteristics influence clients’ perceptions of their effectiveness, potentially mediating the efficacy of subsequent interventions. However, very little research has been directed toward this issue for sports dietitians (SDs), the health professionals whom athletes are likely to engage to assist with manipulation of traits of physique. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine whether SDs’ phenotype, specifically body-mass index (BMI), and type of dress influence potential clients’ preference to consult them for dietetic support and if this affects their perceived effectiveness.
One hundred volunteers (mean age 18.7 ± 0 .8 years) all participating in regular competitive sport, classified by gender (male, n = 55, or female, n = 45) and competitive standard (elite/subelite, n = 68, or club/recreational, n = 32) viewed slides representing four concurrently presented computer-generated images of the same female SD manipulated to represent different BMIs and dress types. Participants were asked to rank the SDs in order of their preference to work with them and, second, to rate their perceived effectiveness of each of the SDs.
Key findings included the observation of a significant BMI main effect F(6, 91) = 387.39, p < .001 (effect size .96), with participants’ ranking of preference and rating of perceived effectiveness of female SDs decreasing with increasing BMI.
SDs should consider their physical appearance when meeting with athletes, as this may affect their perceived efficacy.