differences in physical demand would exist according to the characteristics of a typical ride, with consideration of factors such as terrain type, trail grooming, vehicle style, and riding technique. Methods Phase 1—Definition of a Typical PA Exposure To define the “typical” ride, a survey was distributed
Tania Pereira, John Durocher, and Jamie Burr
Blake D. McLean, Donald Strack, Jennifer Russell, and Aaron J. Coutts
game-related physical demands of the sport, NBA athletes also travel and compete in 4 different time zones across the continental United States and Canada (with several teams also traveling to Mexico and Europe each season) to play approximately half of their games in the home cities of opposing teams
Nick Dobbin, Anthony Atherton, and Colin Hill
task load and effort, thus reaffirming previous work such as Mullen 14 who demonstrated that a greater number of tackles was associated with an increased subjective physical demands and overall higher task load across a Super League season. With a high degree of importance placed on the tackle during
Davide Ferioli, Diego Rucco, Ermanno Rampinini, Antonio La Torre, Marco M. Manfredi, and Daniele Conte
interceptions) demands than 4v4 GBD with RD. 6 However, the authors did not provide any information about the physical demands sustained in the 2 conditions, and the results were limited to 4v4. A better understanding of the physiological, physical, and technical demands of RD and ND GBD involving a different
Dajo Sanders and Teun van Erp
cyclists competing in the Tour de France. 24 However, these reviews are outdated (ie, the last review specifically focusing on professional cyclists was in 2005) and thus do not include a recent influx of new articles describing the physical demands and power profiles of professional cycling races. 2 – 5
Adam Douglas, Michael A. Rotondi, Joseph Baker, Veronica K. Jamnik, and Alison K. Macpherson
, Gabbett TJ . Physical demands of training and competition in collegiate netball players . J Strength Cond Res . 2014 ; 28 ( 10 ): 2732 – 2737 . PubMed ID: 24983848 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000486 24983848 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000486 11. Hulin BT , Gabbett TJ , Johnston RD , Jenkins DG
Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Robert McCunn, and Andrew Murray
load is becoming commonplace in AF (personal communication), presently there are limited studies which have quantified the physical demands of AF gameplay. Wellman and colleagues 14 monitored 33 DI players during 12 regular season games. The authors found significant differences between offensive and
Sam Coad, Bon Gray, and Christopher McLellan
To assess match-to-match variations in salivary immunoglobulin A concentration ([s-IgA]) measured at 36 h postmatch throughout an Australian Football League (AFL) premiership season and to assess the trends between 36-h-postmatch [s-IgA] and match-play exercise workloads throughout the same season.
Eighteen elite male AFL athletes (24 ± 4.2 y, 187.0 ± 7.1 cm, 87.0 ± 7.6 kg) were monitored on a weekly basis to determine total match-play exercise workloads and 36-h-postmatch [s-IgA] throughout 16 consecutive matches in an AFL premiership season. Global positioning systems (GPS) with integrated triaxial accelerometers were used to measure exercise workloads (PlayerLoad) during each AFL match. A linear mixed-model analyses was conducted for time-dependent changes in [s-IgA] and player load.
A significant main effect was found for longitudinal postmatch [s-IgA] data (F 16,240 = 3.78, P < .01) and PlayerLoad data (F 16,66 = 1.98, P = .03). For all matches after and including match 7, a substantial suppression trend in [s-IgA] 36-h-postmatch values was found compared with preseason baseline [s-IgA].
The current study provides novel data regarding longitudinal trends in 36-h-postmatch [s-IgA] for AFL athletes. Results demonstrate that weekly in-season AFL match-play exercise workloads may result in delayed mucosal immunological recovery beyond 36 h postmatch. The inclusion of individual athlete-monitoring strategies of [s-IgA] may be advantageous in the detection of compromised postmatch mucosal immunological function for AFL athletes.
Ibai Guridi Lopategui, Julen Castellano Paulis, and Ibon Echeazarra Escudero
Purpose: The objectives of the present study were (1) to analyze the internal and external load profile of training and competition carried out by semiprofessional football players during a 27-week period and (2) to examine the possible link between this type of periodization and players’ fitness status and their readiness to compete. Methods: Training and match data were obtained from 26 semiprofessional football players belonging to the reserve squad of a Spanish La Liga club during the 2018/19 season. For the purpose of this study, the distribution of external and internal load during a typical training microcycle, with 6 or 7 days between matches, was analyzed. Five types of sessions were considered: strength, duration, velocity, preofficial match, and official match. Results: The results showed a different internal and external load profile for each type of session, with the load being consistently higher during matches when compared with training sessions (28.9%–94% higher), showing significant differences in all the variables. There was a clear tapering strategy in the last days of the week to arrive with enough freshness to compete, shown by the decrease of the values in the 2 days before the match (15%–83% reduction, depending on the variable). Furthermore, the horizontal alternation of the load allowed the players to maintain their fitness level during the 27-week period. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that this weekly periodization approach could help achieve a double conditional target, allowing a short tapering strategy to face the match with enough freshness and serving as a strategy for maintaining or optimizing players’ physical performance during the season.
Sam Coad, Bon Gray, George Wehbe, and Christopher McLellan
To examine the response or pre- and postmatch salivary immunoglobulin A concentration ([s-IgA]) to Australian Football League (AFL) match play and investigate the acute and cumulative influence of player workload and postmatch [s-IgA] after repeated participation in AFL match play.
Eleven elite AFL athletes (21.8 ± 2.4 y, 186.9 ± 7.9 cm, 87.4 ± 7.5 kg) were monitored throughout 3 matches during the preseason that were separated by 7 d. Saliva samples were collected across each AFL match at 24 h and 1 h prematch and 1, 12, 36, and 60 h postmatch to determine [s-IgA]. Global positioning systems (GPS) with integrated triaxial accelerometers were used to determine total player workload during match play. Hypothesis testing was conducted for time-dependent changes in [s-IgA] and player load using a repeated-measures ANOVA.
Player load during match 3 (1266 ± 124.6 AU) was significantly (P < .01) greater than in match 1 (1096 ± 115.1 AU) and match 2 (1082 ± 90.4 AU). Across match 3, [s-IgA] was significantly (P < .01) suppressed at 2 postmatch measures (12 and 36 h) compared with prematch measures (24 and 1 h), which coincided with significantly (P < .01) elevated player load.
The findings indicate that an increase in player load during AFL preseason match play resulted in compromised postmatch mucosal immunological function. Longitudinal assessment of AFL-match player load and mucosal immunological function across the first 60 h of recovery may augment monitoring and preparedness strategies for athletes.