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Panos Constantinides and Stephen Silverman

attitude impacts peoples’ lives is related to attitudes toward physical activity. Physical education experiences offered in school influence attitude, which in turn influence attitude toward physical activity and subsequently physical activity behavior ( Carlson, 1995 ; Ennis, 1996 ; Portman, 1995

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Meredith George and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

Research which sheds light on why children and youth react to and perceive physical education programming as they do should be of use to teachers, policy makers, and those who carry out physical education teacher education (PETE) ( Curtner-Smith, 2009 ). Given that they have such a strong influence

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Jing Dong Liu and Pak-Kwong Chung

adolescence has been reported ( Nader, Bradley, Houts, McRitchie, & O’Brien, 2008 ), and a similar pattern has also been found in the physical education (PE) context in Hong Kong ( Chow, McKenzie, & Louie, 2008 , 2009 ). School PE is considered a potential venue for promoting a physically active lifestyle

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Cédric Roure and Denis Pasco

, characterized by spontaneity derived from the interaction between an individual and a specific situation. Chen, Chen, and Zhu ( 2012 ) for example, revealed through a meta-analysis that SI was a primary motivator for K-12 students to engage in physical education. Situational Interest in Physical Education The

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Stephen Silverman

This paper provides a comprehensive review of attitude research in physical education. The first section, reviews theoretical models that are prevalent in attitude research. Then, the next section describes the methods that were used to locate the research used in the remainder of the paper. The third section discusses measurement issues in attitude research, focusing on issues of score reliability. The final section reviews the results of research on attitude of physical education students and teachers. Critiques and analyses occur throughout the review.

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Julia A. Valley and Kim C. Graber

Purpose:

This study examined physical education teachers’ awareness of gender equitable practices as well as the language and behaviors they employed in the physical education environment. The purpose of the study was to determine (a) what teachers know about gender equitable practices, (b) what types of gender bias are demonstrated, and (c) how teachers are influenced to adopt gender equitable behaviors in the physical education context.

Method:

A multiple-case study approach was used to provide an in-depth analysis of the attitudes and behaviors of four physical education teachers from four different schools. Teachers were formally and informally interviewed before, during, and after four extensive two-week periods of observations that included being audio recorded throughout the school day.

Results:

Themes emerged across the cases indicating that teachers engaged in teaching practices that reinforced gender stereotypes through biased language and gender segregation.

Discussion/Conclusion:

Teachers’ lack of awareness and understanding of gender equity prevented them from providing an inclusive learning experience for all students.

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Bryan A. McCullick, Thomas Baker, Phillip D. Tomporowski, Thomas J. Templin, Karen Lux and Tiffany Isaac

The purpose of this study was to analyze state school-based physical education (SBPE) policies’ text and the resulting legal implications. A textualist approach to the legal method of Statutory Interpretation framed the data analysis. Findings revealed the difficulty of determining with clarity a majority of PE statutes and it is probable that based on current wording, courts could not play a role in interpreting these statutes, thus leaving interpretation to educational authorities. Significant variability of how authorities interpret statutes increases the challenge of consistent interpretation or adherence to the NASPE Guidelines for Quality Physical Education and whether meaningful policy study can be conducted to determine if SBPE makes an impact.

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Dominique Banville

Support, or lack thereof, is often cited as the main reason for teachers to leave the profession early on (Ingersoll, 2003). Feiman-Nemser (2001) identifies five Central Tasks associated with Learning to Teach (CTLT) that could focus the support novice teachers need during their induction years: learning the teaching context (TC), designing responsive instructional program (IP), creating a classroom learning community (CC), enacting a beginning repertoire (BR) and developing their professional identity (PI). The purpose of the study is to examine the CTLT that novice physical education teachers use in their first and second years of their teaching career. Twenty-one physical education teachers accepted the study parameters to be observed and interviewed during their first year of teaching, and 15 teachers continued the data collection into their second year. Interviews revealed that these teachers focused mainly on BR and TC. Little focus was given to IP, CC, and PI. Results indicate the need for effective mentoring and continuous support through their induction years on BR and TC, but also expand novice teachers’ focus to address the additional categories.

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Takahiro Sato and Samuel Russell Hodge

The purpose of this study was to describe and explain the teaching experiences of African American physical education teacher candidates in secondary physical education programs at urban schools. The research design was explanatory multiple-case study situated in positioning theory (Harré & van Langenhove, 1999). The participants were seven African American physical education teacher candidates. The data sources were interviews, self-reflective journal logs, and e-portfolios. The data were analyzed using a constant comparative method (Boeije, 2010). The thematic findings were: (a) tacit positioning (unconscious and unintentional), (b) self–other discourse, and (c) reflective positioning. The study’s findings offer additional empirical evidence that physical education teacher education programs must do more to better prepare teacher candidates for working in urban schools with greater cultural competency and higher self-efficacy.

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Sharon R. Phillips and Stephen Silverman

This study examined the attitudes of upper elementary school students toward physical education. Fourth and fifth grade students (N = 1344) from 13 school districts, 17 schools, and five states completed an attitude instrument with scores that had been previously validated for a two factor model (affect and cognition) and a four factor model (affect and cognition with the subfactors of teacher and curriculum). For the four factor model, there was a difference between grades for both affect-curriculum and affect-teacher (F(1, 1340) = 6.25, p < .01, ηp 2 = .005). Similarly, for the two factor model the affect variable was different between grades, indication that as students age their affect toward physical education decreases (F(1, 1341)= 48.65, p < .001, ηp 2 = .035). This study suggests that upper elementary school students have an overall favorable attitude toward physical education, impacted by how they think and feel about the curriculum and teacher.