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Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac, José Messias Rodrigues da Silva and Rodolfo Paula Vieira

), and rheumatic diseases. 8 – 10 Consequently, inflammaging has been associated with frailty, cognitive decline, and mortality. 4 On the other hand, there is strong evidence that physical exercise can prevent or reduce age-related alterations in immune system, contributing to health improvement and the

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Morteza Sadeghi, Gholamali Ghasemi and Mohammadtaghi Karimi

deformities, and bone osteoporosis. 5 To decrease the complications associated with this injury, patients have been recommended to undergo various therapeutic strategies, including the use of various orthoses to stand and walk, physical exercise to increase the range of motion of the joints and to reduce

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Bente M. Raafs, Esther G.A. Karssemeijer, Lizzy Van der Horst, Justine A. Aaronson, Marcel G.M. Olde Rikkert and Roy P.C. Kessels

unhealthy adults found effects on the physical and psychological domains of QoL, but no effect on the overall QoL ( Gillison, Skevington, Sato, Standage, & Evangelidou, 2009 ). A more recent qualitative review on physical exercise in healthy older adults showed an enhancement of QoL ( Mura et al., 2014

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Leila Selimbegović, Olivier Dupuy, Julie Terache, Yannick Blandin, Laurent Bosquet and Armand Chatard

given domain facilitates effort expenditure in the unrelated domain of physical exercise. Such findings could have important theoretical and practical implications and could contribute to the understanding of acute stress responses in humans. Because there has been no prior research on this issue, this

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Tatsuya Daikoku, Yuji Takahashi, Nagayoshi Tarumoto and Hideki Yasuda

statistical information. This suggests that we could efficiently recognize information by correlating it with acquired statistical knowledge regardless of learning conditions. Previous studies showed that concurrent physical exercise could interfere with visual statistical learning when learners were not

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Juliana Hotta Ansai, Larissa Pires de Andrade, Marcele Stephanie de Souza Buto, Verena de Vassimon Barroso, Ana Claudia Silva Farche, Paulo Giusti Rossi and Anielle Cristhine de Medeiros Takahashi

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the addition of a dual task to multicomponent training on cognition of active older adults. Eighty physically active older adults were divided into an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG). Both groups performed multicomponent training over 12 weeks. The IG simultaneously performed exercises and cognitive tasks. The Mini-Mental State Examination, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and the Clock Drawing Test were used for cognitive assessments. The Timed Up and Go Test associated with a cognitive task was used for dual-task assessment. Significant interactions were not observed between groups in terms of the cognitive variables or the dual-task performance. An interaction was observed only for Timed Up and Go Test performance, which was better in the CG than in the IG. Active older adults showed no improvement in cognition following the addition of the dual task to the multicomponent training.

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Renata Valle Pedroso, José Maria Cancela, Carlos Ayán, Angelica Miki Stein, Gilson Fuzaro, José Luiz Riani Costa, Francisco J. Fraga and Ruth Ferreira Santos-Galduróz

thought to be responsible for generation of the P300 response. 5 In people with AD, a P300 model has been observed, characterized by significantly longer latencies and smaller amplitudes compared with healthy populations. 6 The performance of physical exercise seems to have a positive effect on the P300

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Henrique Nascimento, Ana Inês Alves, Ana Filipa Medeiros, Susana Coimbra, Cristina Catarino, Elsa Bronze-da-Rocha, Elísio Costa, Petronila Rocha-Pereira, Gustavo Silva, Luísa Aires, André Seabra, Jorge Mota, Helena Ferreira Mansilha, Carla Rêgo, Alice Santos-Silva and Luis Belo

Purpose:

There are few reliable studies assessing the effect of physical exercise (PE) on adipokines levels at young ages. Our objective was to study the effects of regular PE on plasma adipokines in pediatric overweight and obesity.

Method:

117 overweight and obese children and adolescents (47% females; 10.2 years) participated in an 8-month longitudinal study divided in two groups: PE group (n = 80), engaged in an after-school PE program; control group (n = 37), with no PE program. Plasma lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, resistin, leptin, IL-6, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, insulin and glucose levels were determined.

Results:

contrarily to the control group, the PE group presented reductions in body mass index z-score (BMIzsc) and body fat percentage that were accompanied by an improvement in lipid profile and insulin resistance, a reduction in CRP and TNF-alpha and an increase in adiponectin levels. The reductions in BMIzsc were inversely correlated with changes in adiponectin (r=−0.329, p = .003) and positively correlated with changes in percentage body fat (r = .262, p = .032), triglycerides (r = .228, p = .042) and leptin (r = .285, p = .010).

Conclusion:

Moderate reductions in adiposity improve proinflammatory status in obese children and adolescents. A more substantial reduction in BMIzsc was associated with a greater increment in adiponectin and reduction in leptin.

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Diego de Alcantara Borba, Eduardo da Silva Alves, João Paulo Pereira Rosa, Lucas Alves Facundo, Carlos Magno Amaral Costa, Aldo Coelho Silva, Fernanda Veruska Narciso, Andressa Silva and Marco Túlio de Mello

It is possible to notice that physical exercise plays an important role in endocrinal systems linked to muscle function. The muscle response to exercise results in acute hormone changes such as an increase in growth hormone (GH) and also perhaps on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels. 1 The

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Francesc Llorens, Daniel Sanabria, Florentino Huertas, Enrique Molina and Simon Bennett

The abrupt onset of a visual stimulus typically results in overt attentional capture, which can be quantified by saccadic eye movements. Here, we tested whether attentional capture following onset of task-irrelevant visual stimuli (new object) is reduced after a bout of intense physical exercise. A group of participants performed a visual search task in two different activity conditions: rest, without any prior effort, and effort, immediately after an acute bout of intense exercise. The results showed that participants exhibited (1) slower reaction time of the first saccade toward the target when a new object was simultaneously presented in the visual field, but only in the rest activity condition, and (2) more saccades to the new object in the rest activity condition than in the effort activity condition. We suggest that immediately after an acute bout of effort, participants improved their ability to inhibit irrelevant (distracting) stimuli.