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Rochelle Eime, Jack Harvey and Warren Payne

Background:

To examine the dose-response relationship between health related quality of life (HRQoL) and life satisfaction (outcomes) and duration of recreational physical activity (exposure). Further, to explore whether these relationships depend on type of physical activity (PA).

Methods:

793 Australian rural-living women self-reported on duration of recreational PA; HRQoL via SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS) and Physical Component Summary (PCS); and a life satisfaction scale. ANOVAs and ANCOVAs investigated differences in outcomes (MCS, PCS, and life satisfaction) between tertiles of exposure to recreational PA, and types of PA (club sport, gymnasium, walking), with adjustment for potential confounders.

Results:

A significant positive dose-response relationship was found between PCS and level of PA. Furthermore, this relationship depended on type of PA, with club-sport participants recording higher PCS than non-club-sport participants in all but the highest tertile of exposure. Life satisfaction and MCS were not significantly related to level of PA.

Conclusion:

Physical health was positively associated with level of recreational PA, with club sport participation contributing greater benefits at low to moderate exposures than participation in gymnasium or walking activities.

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Patricia Marten DiBartolo, Linda Lin, Simone Montoya, Heather Neal and Carey Shaffer

This study reports the psychometric development of a measure to assess individual differences in exercise motivations using a functionalist strategy (Snyder & Cantor, 1997). Factor analyses revealed two subscales for the newly developed Function of Exercise Scale (FES): Weight and Appearance (WA), and Health and Enjoyment (HE). FES-HE scores correlated with better psychological well-being and predicted prospectively monitored as well as concurrently and longitudinally assessed exercise behavior. FES-HE scores also correlated with lower pulse, systolic blood pressure, and salivary cortisol readings, indicating its association with better physical health. In contrast, FES-WA scores correlated with greater depressive and eating disorder symptoms, as well as lower self-esteem, and predicted the later emergence of eating disorder, but not depressive, symptoms. FES-WA scores failed to show a relationship with measures of physical well-being, including exercise engagement and vital sign data. Overall, the FES appears to hold promise as a succinct and psychometrically sound heuristic for meaningfully relating exercise motivations to important indices of both physical and psychological well-being.

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Tine Torbeyns, Bas de Geus, Stephen Bailey, Lieselot Decroix, Jeroen Van Cutsem, Kevin De Pauw and Romain Meeusen

Background:

Physical activity is positively associated with physical health, cognitive performance, brain functioning and academic performance. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of bike desks in the classroom on adolescents’ energy expenditure, physical health, cognitive performance, brain functioning and academic performance.

Methods:

Forty-four adolescents were randomly assigned to control group (CG) or intervention group (IG). During 5 months, the IG used a bike desk for 4 class hours/week. Energy expenditure was measured during 6 consecutive days. Anthropometric parameters, aerobic fitness, academic performance, cognitive performance and brain functioning were assessed before (T0) and after (T1) the intervention.

Results:

Energy expenditure of the IG was significantly higher during the class hours in which they used the bike desks relative to normal class hours. The CG had a significantly higher BMI at T1 relative to T0 while this was not significantly different for the IG. Aerobic fitness was significantly better in the IG at T1 relative to T0. No significant effects on academic performance cognitive performance and brain functioning were observed.

Conclusions:

As the implementation of bike desks in the classroom did not interfere with adolescents’ academic performance, this can be seen as an effective means of reducing in-class sedentary time and improving adolescents’ physical health.

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Hannah Macdougall, Paul O’Halloran, Emma Sherry and Nora Shields

The well-being needs and strengths of para-athletes in a global and sport-specific context were investigated across subjective psychological, social, and physical health and well-being dimensions. Data were drawn from (a) semistructured interviews with Australian para-athletes (n = 23), (b) a focus group with the Australian Paralympic Committee (n = 9), and (c) a confirmatory para-athlete focus group (n = 8). The well-being needs and strengths of para-athletes differed across gender, sport, level of competition, and nature of impairment. Well-being needs were an interaction between physical pain, emotional regulation, lacking purpose outside of sport, and a lack of self-acceptance, especially for athletes with acquired impairments. Well-being strengths were perceived to increase as athletes increased their level of competition, and included personal growth, optimism, strong social support networks, and contributing to multiple communities. The importance of well-being as a multidimensional concept within the global and sport-specific context for para-athletes is discussed.

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Chia-Yuan Yu, Su-I Hou and Jonathan Miller

distributed by living arrangement and how that might affect overall physical health, especially in older adults. The objectives of this study were to (1) explore the influence of social capital and leisure-time physical activity on the physical and mental health of older adults and (2) test whether these

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Simone Ciaccioni, Laura Capranica, Roberta Forte, Helmi Chaabene, Caterina Pesce and Giancarlo Condello

benefits, and signed a written informed consent before the start of the study. Inclusion criteria comprised: (a) good mental and physical health (≥50th percentile, according to the Italian norms, Apolone et al., 2005 , of the Short Form Health Survey Version 2 [SF-12v2] questionnaire, Ware et al., 2002

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Andrew J. Martin, David V. Tipler, Herbert W. Marsh, Garry E. Richards and Melinda R. Williams

This study presents a new, multidimensional approach to physical activity motivation that is operationalized through four primary factors: adaptive cognitive dimensions, adaptive behavioral dimensions, impeding cognitive dimensions, and maladaptive behavioral dimensions. Among 171 Australian high school students, the study assessed the structure of this four-factor framework (a within-network construct validity approach) and also examined the relationships between motivation and three key correlates: flow in physical activity, physical self-concept, and physical activity level (a between-network construct validity approach). The four-factor framework demonstrated within-network validity in the form of reliable subscales and a sound factor structure. In terms of between-network validity, relationships between the adaptive behavioral and cognitive aspects of motivation and physical self-concept, flow, and activity levels were found to be positive and significant, whereas significant inverse relationships were found between impeding and maladaptive motivation dimensions and flow and physical self-concept. Additional analysis utilizing multiple-indicator multiple-cause (MIMIC) modeling showed that during earlier adolescence girls are more motivated than boys to engage in physical activity, but by later adolescence boys are more motivated to do so. Results are interpreted in terms of future directions for possible physical activity interventions aimed at increasing both the uptake and continuation of activity.

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Danielle M. Thiel, Fatima Al Sayah, Jeff Vallance, Steven T. Johnson and Jeffrey A. Johnson

Background:

The objective was to investigate the longitudinal relationship between physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adults with type 2 diabetes.

Methods:

Data were from a prospective cohort of adults with type 2 diabetes. Weekly moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was reported using the Godin Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire, and HRQL was reported using the SF-12 and 5-level EQ-5D. Participants were categorized based on current weekly MVPA recommendations. Multivariable linear regression was used to explore associations between MVPA and HRQL, and multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the direction of change in HRQL after 1 year.

Results:

Mean age of participants (N = 1948) was 64.5 ± 10.8 years and 45% were female. Participants reported a mean of 84.1 ± 172.4 min of MVPA/week, and 21% (n = 416) met weekly MVPA recommendations. MVPA was associated with differences in the physical functioning (b = 5.42; P < .001), general health (b = 2.45; P = .037), and vitality (b = 2.83; P = .016) SF-12 dimensions. Participants who met recommendations were less likely to report a decline (vs. no change) in EQ-5D index score (OR = 0.75; 95% CI [0.57, 0.99]), and SF-12 physical component summary (OR = 0.67; 95% CI [0.50, 0.90]), compared with participants not meeting recommendations.

Conclusions:

Participants who met weekly MVPA recommendations reported better physical functioning and were more likely to maintain their physical and overall HRQL over time.

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Marianne Lacharité-Lemieux and Isabelle J. Dionne

Chronic effects of two different exercise environments on self-chosen intensity and physiological adaptations were examined in postmenopausal women. Twenty-three healthy to overweight (body mass index [BMI] 22–29 kg/m2) postmenopausal women performed three weekly training sessions during 12 weeks and were assigned to either: (1) indoor training or (2) outdoor training. Body composition, metabolic profile, and physical fitness (including Vo2max, maximal strength, and endurance) were assessed pre- and postintervention. Exercise intensity was measured every week during the training. Maximum intensity decreased significantly in time only in outdoor training (p ≤ .05). Body composition and VO2max were significantly improved indoors (p ≤ .05), whereas resting blood pressure and upper body maximal strength and endurance were improved outdoors (p ≤ .05). Indoor training is associated with maintaining intensity over time and slightly higher physiological improvements than outdoor training. However, outdoor training seems promising from a long-term perspective, due to its positive effects on health parameters and exercise adherence.

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Chia-Yuan Yu

Background:

Few studies have examined the associations among social cohesion, physical activity, and obesity in older adults. This study explored the influences of social cohesion and leisure-time physical activity on obesity in older adults, and tested whether these relationships varied by race/ethnicity and income level.

Methods:

A cross-sectional analysis of adults in the 2013 National Health Interview Study (NHIS) who were over 65 years of age (N = 7714) was used. Logistic regressions were performed to examine the impacts of social cohesion and physical activity on obesity, and the relative risks (RR) were reported.

Results:

The median age was 73 years old, and 59.8% of respondents were female; 23.8% met the recommended level of moderate physical activity. Neighborhood social cohesion was not associated with obesity for older adults. Meeting the recommended level of vigorous physical activity was related to a lower probability of obesity only for older Hispanic adults (RR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.31 to 0.50), while older adults were less likely to be obese if they met the recommended level of moderate physical activity.

Conclusions:

Increasing the level of physical activity may profoundly reduce the probability of obesity for older adults. Moreover, the results implied the need for future physical activity interventions for minorities.