to 19% of the younger adults ( WHO, 2010b ). Among specific subpopulations of older adults, this lack of PA is even more prevalent, such as single older adults ( Masi, Chen, Hawkley, & Cacioppo, 2011 ; Toepoel, 2013 ) and adults with physical impairments ( WHO, 2011 ). Several studies have shown
Janet M. Boekhout, Brenda A.J. Berendsen, Denise A. Peels, Catherine A.W. Bolman, and Lilian Lechner
Luke Hogarth, Brendan Burkett, Peter Van de Vliet, and Carl Payton
. Swimmers with physical impairment compete across the largest number of classes—10 swimmers for freestyle, backstroke, and butterfly events (S1–S10) and 9 swimmers for breaststroke events (SB1–SB9) with lower class numbers indicating greater activity limitation. Eligible types of physical impairment include
Allen W. Burton and Walter E. Davis
An ecological model of motor behavior presented by Davis and Burton (12) suggests that the qualitative and quantitative aspects of motor behavior for all persons emerge from three sets of constraints: performer, environmental, and task. The involvement and performance of movement activities by children with physical impairments may be optimized by carefully manipulating one or more of these three types of constraints, and by recognizing and accepting that the optimal movement patterns used by these children with unique performer constraints may differ from those exhibited by other children.
Hannah Macdougall, Paul O’Halloran, Nora Shields, and Emma Sherry
This systematic review included 12 studies that compared the well-being of Para and Olympic sport athletes. Meta-analyses revealed that Para athletes, compared with Olympic sport athletes, had lower levels of self-acceptance, indicated by athletic identity, d = -0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-0.77, -0.16], and body-image perceptions, d = -0.33, 95% CI [-0.59, -0.07], and differed from Olympic sport athletes in terms of their motivation, indicated by a greater mastery-oriented climate, d = 0.74, 95% CI [0.46, 1.03]. Given an inability to pool the remaining data for meta-analysis, individual standardized mean differences were calculated for other dimensions of psychological and subjective well-being. The results have implications for professionals and coaches aiming to facilitate the well-being needs of athletes under their care. Future research would benefit from incorporating established models of well-being based on theoretical rationale combined with rigorous study designs.
Hannah Macdougall, Paul O’Halloran, Emma Sherry, and Nora Shields
The well-being needs and strengths of para-athletes in a global and sport-specific context were investigated across subjective psychological, social, and physical health and well-being dimensions. Data were drawn from (a) semistructured interviews with Australian para-athletes (n = 23), (b) a focus group with the Australian Paralympic Committee (n = 9), and (c) a confirmatory para-athlete focus group (n = 8). The well-being needs and strengths of para-athletes differed across gender, sport, level of competition, and nature of impairment. Well-being needs were an interaction between physical pain, emotional regulation, lacking purpose outside of sport, and a lack of self-acceptance, especially for athletes with acquired impairments. Well-being strengths were perceived to increase as athletes increased their level of competition, and included personal growth, optimism, strong social support networks, and contributing to multiple communities. The importance of well-being as a multidimensional concept within the global and sport-specific context for para-athletes is discussed.
Yves C. Vanlandewijck, Arthur J. Spaepen, and Roeland J. Lysens
Fifty-two male elite wheelchair basketball athletes, classified into four functional ability classes, were studied to determine whether overall wheelchair basketball performance in a game situation is related to the functional ability level of the participant. To determine the quality of the individual’s game performance, 18 championship games were videotaped and analyzed by means of the Comprehensive Basketball Grading System. Physical fitness parameters (propulsive force and aerobic power) were determined in specific laboratory conditions. Force application on the wheelchair handrims was measured by means of an ergodyn device. Finally, the subjects, while in their wheelchairs, performed a maximal exercise capacity test on a motordriven treadmill. The analyses indicated significant differences in field performance and aerobic power between Class I and the rest of the classes. However, isometric and dynamic force application on the handrims could not be proven to be functional ability dependent. In conclusion, reducing the number of classes to improve fair and equitable competition in wheelchair basketball was considered viable.
Sharon R. Guthrie and Shirley Castelnuovo
The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the ways women with physical disabilities shape their identities and manage (i.e., cope or come to terms with) their disabilities while living in an able-bodyist culture. Particular emphasis was placed on how these women, all of whom were participating in sport or exercise, used physical activity in the management process. In-depth interviews were conducted with 34 women who had physical mobility disabilities. Findings indicated three different approaches to managing disability via physical activity: (a) management by minimizing the significance of the body, (b) management by normalization of the body, and (c) management by optimizing mind-body functioning. They also indicated that having a disability does not preclude positive physical and global self-perceptions. The implications of these findings for sport and society are discussed.
Anna Bjerkefors, Johanna S. Rosén, Olga Tarassova, and Anton Arndt
to an increase in pelvis and trunk rotation and a higher power output. 1 Kayaking performed by people with physical impairment is called para-kayak and was introduced as an international competitive sport in 2009 and debuted in the Paralympic Games in 2016. In Paralympic sports, athletes compete in
David E.J. Purdue and P. David Howe
This paper explores issues surrounding the inclusion of impaired bodies within the Paralympic Games. To achieve this aim we use empirical data gathered from semistructured interviews held with a range of Paralympic stakeholders. The background upon which this data are analyzed is a critical analysis of the International Paralympic Committee’s (IPC’s) current vision and mission. Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and capital (Bourdieu, 1997, 1984) provide the theoretical foundation upon which the analysis takes place. Discussion centers on Paralympic stakeholders’ articulations of issues surrounding individuals with cerebral palsy and/or severe physical impairments, emanating, in part, from a desire for aesthetically pleasing sporting performances. This paper gives Paralympic stakeholders a voice, upon which the IPC and broader sporting community may choose to reflect.
Fuzhong Li, K. John Fisher, Peter Harmer, and Machiko Shirai
Low-impact exercise that appeals to elderly adults and can be done almost anywhere provides both societal and individual benefits. One such program is Tai Chi, a traditional Chinese dancelike conditioning exercise. The article presents an easily adopted and adapted 8-form Tai Chi program (Easy Tai Chi) designed for older adults or individuals with mobility challenges or physical impairments. Derived from a simplified 24-form Yang-style Tai Chi, it stresses postural control and body-limb rotational movements. Easy Tai Chi can be performed either standing or sitting, depending on the physical and functional limitations of participants. Preliminary data indicate a number of health benefits of Easy Tai Chi compared with a traditional exercise program. Although subject to further empirical evaluation, Easy Tai Chi can be applied in research settings to investigate prevention or amelioration of hypokinetic diseases and in clinical settings to treat physically frail seniors or others with functional impairments of the musculoskeletal or cardiovascular system.