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Peter T. Katzmarzyk

Background:

Although the prevalence of physical inactivity is high in Canada, few studies have assessed its public health impact.

Methods:

A cause-deleted methodology was employed to estimate the effects of physical inactivity on life expectancy. Life expectancy in 2002 was estimated from an abridged life table analysis, which was repeated after removing deaths from physical inactivity. Deaths from physical inactivity were estimated from published population-attributable fractions for coronary artery disease, stroke, hypertension, colon cancer, breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes.

Results:

Life expectancy was 79.7 y in the total population, 77.2 y in males, and 82.1 y in females. Compared to overall life expectancy, physical inactivity cause-deleted values were 0.86 y lower in the total population, 0.65 y lower in males, and 1.0 y lower in females.

Conclusions:

Life expectancy could be increased by over 10 months if Canadians could be encouraged to be physically active.

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Sunday Azagba and Mesbah Fathy Sharaf

Background:

In spite of the substantial benefits of physical activity for healthy aging, older adults are considered the most physically inactive segment of the Canadian population. This paper examines leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPA) and its correlates among older Canadian adults.

Methods:

We use data from the Canadian Community Health Survey with 45,265 individuals aged 50–79 years. A logistic regression is estimated and separate regressions are performed for males and females.

Results:

About 50% of older Canadian adults are physically inactive. Higher odds of physical inactivity are found among current smokers (OR = 1.52, CI = 1.37–1.69), those who binge-drink (OR = 1.24, CI = 1.11–1.39), visible minorities (OR = 1.60, CI = 1.39–1.85), immigrants (OR = 1.13, CI = 1.02–1.25), individuals with high perceived life stress (OR = 1.48, CI = 1.31–1.66). We also find lower odds of physical inactivity among: males (OR = 0.89, CI = 0.83 to 0.96), those with strong social interaction (OR = 0.71, CI = 0.66–0.77), with general life satisfaction (OR = 0.66, CI = 0.58–0.76) and individuals with more education. Similar results are obtained from separate regressions for males and females.

Conclusions:

Identifying the correlates of LTPA among older adults can inform useful intervention measures.

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Mon S. Bryant, Diana H. Rintala, Jyh-Gong Hou and Elizabeth J. Protas

Aim:

To investigate the relationships between falls, fear of falling, and activity limitations in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD).

Design/methods:

Cross-sectional study of individuals with mild to moderate PD (N = 83). Associations among demographic data, fall frequency, disease severity, motor impairment, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), Activities Balance Confidence Scale, Iowa Fatigue Scale, Comorbidity Index, and Physical Activity Scale for Elders were studied.

Results:

Frequent fallers had more ADL limitations than nonfallers (p < .001) and rare fallers (p = .004). Frequent fallers reported a lower percentage of ability to perform ADL than nonfallers (p = .003). Frequent fallers and rare fallers were less physically active than nonfallers (p = .015 and p = .040, respectively). Frequent fallers and rare fallers reported a higher level of fear of falling than nonfallers (p = .031 and p = .009, respectively).

Conclusions:

Falls and fear of falling were associated with more ADL limitations and less physical activity after adjusting for physical impairments.

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Hayley Guiney, Michael Keall and Liana Machado

nationally-representative research using that age range definition ( Mummery et al., 2007 ) and to enable a sufficient sample size for analysis. By providing up-to-date information on New Zealand older adults’ physical activity levels and identifying the correlates of both physical inactivity and meeting the

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Bruna Camilo Turi, Jamile S. Codogno, Romulo A. Fernandes, Xuemei Sui, Carl J. Lavie, Steven N. Blair and Henrique Luiz Monteiro

Background:

Hypertension is one of the most common noncommunicable diseases worldwide, and physical inactivity is a risk factor predisposing to its occurrence and complications. However, it is still unclear the association between physical inactivity domains and hypertension, especially in public healthcare systems. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between physical inactivity aggregation in different domains and prevalence of hypertension among users of Brazilian public health system.

Methods:

963 participants composed the sample. Subjects were divided into quartiles groups according to 3 different domains of physical activity (occupational; physical exercises; and leisure-time and transportation). Hypertension was based on physician diagnosis.

Results:

Physical inactivity in occupational domain was significantly associated with higher prevalence of hypertension (OR = 1.52 [1.05 to 2.21]). The same pattern occurred for physical inactivity in leisure-time (OR = 1.63 [1.11 to 2.39]) and aggregation of physical inactivity in 3 domains (OR = 2.46 [1.14 to 5.32]). However, the multivariate-adjusted model showed significant association between hypertension and physical inactivity in 3 domains (OR = 2.57 [1.14 to 5.79]).

Conclusions:

The results suggest an unequal prevalence of hypertension according to physical inactivity across different domains and increasing the promotion of physical activity in the healthcare system is needed.

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Katerina Maresova

Background:

Several scientific studies estimate the burden of physical inactivity in different countries, yet in the Czech Republic, this kind of research is still missing. This paper represents one of the first attempts to quantify the costs of physical inactivity in the Czech Republic for 2008.

Methods:

The analysis, based on scientific literature review, uses the comparative risk assessment methodology and applies it on data available in the Czech Republic.

Results:

In 2008, the financial cost of physical inactivity to public health insurance companies was almost 700 million Kč, or 0.4%, of total healthcare costs. Furthermore, physical inactivity caused 2442, or 2.3%, of all deaths in 2008 and 18,065, or 1.2%, of all disability-adjusted life years in 2004.

Conclusions:

The costs of physical inactivity in the Czech Republic are considerable, yet slightly smaller than in other comparable studies. The obtained results could be used as an argument for policymakers when conceiving public or private health policy.

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Leandro Fornias Machado de Rezende, Fabiana Maluf Rabacow, Juliana Yukari Kodaira Viscondi, Olinda do Carmo Luiz, Victor Keihan Rodrigues Matsudo and I-Min Lee

Background:

In Brazil, one-fifth of the population reports not doing any physical activity. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), all-cause mortality and life expectancy in Brazil, by region and sociodemographic profile.

Methods:

We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for physical inactivity associated with coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, colon cancer, and all-cause mortality. To calculate the PAF, we used the physical inactivity prevalence from the 2008 Brazilian Household Survey and relative risk data in the literature.

Results:

In Brazil, physical inactivity is attributable to 3% to 5% of all major NCDs and 5.31% of all-cause mortality, ranging from 5.82% in the southeastern region to 2.83% in the southern region. Eliminating physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy by an average of 0.31 years. This reduction would affect mainly individuals with ≥ 15 years of schooling, male, Asian, elderly, residing in an urban area and earning ≥ 2 times the national minimum wage.

Conclusions:

In Brazil, physical inactivity has a major impact on NCDs and mortality, principally in the southeastern and central-west regions. Public policies and interventions promoting physical activity will significantly improve the health of the population.

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Laura Kestilä, Tomi Mäki-Opas, Anton E Kunst, Katja Borodulin, Ossi Rahkonen and Ritva Prättälä

Background:

Limited knowledge exists on how childhood social, health-related and economic circumstances predict adult physical inactivity. Our aim was a) to examine how various childhood adversities and living conditions predict leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood and b) to find out whether these associations are mediated through the respondent’s own education.

Methods:

Young adults aged 18−29 were used from the Health 2000 Study of the Finnish. The cross-sectional data were based on interviews and questionnaires including retrospective information on childhood circumstances. The analyses were carried out on 68% of the original sample (N = 1894). The outcome measure was leisure-time physical inactivity.

Results:

Only a few of the 11 childhood adversities were related with physical activity in early adulthood. Having been bullied at school was associated with physical inactivity independently of the other childhood circumstances and the respondent’s own education. Low parental education predicted leisure-time physical inactivity in men and the association was mediated by the respondent´s own education. Respondents with only primary or vocational education were more likely to be physically inactive during leisure-time compared with those with secondary or higher education.

Conclusions:

There is some evidence that few specific childhood adversities, especially bullying at school, have long-lasting effects on physical activity levels.

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Thiago Herick Sa, Emanuel Péricles Salvador and Alex Antonio Florindo

Background:

Physical inactivity in transportation is negatively related to many health outcomes. However, little is known about the correlates of this condition among people living in regions of low socioeconomic level.

Methods:

Cross-sectional study aimed to assess factors associated with physical inactivity in transportation among adults in the Eastern Zone of São Paulo, Brazil. Home-based interviews were conducted between May 2007 and January 2008 on a probabilistic sample of the adult population (≥18 years), totaling 368 men and 522 women. Factors associated with physical inactivity in transportation (less than 10 minutes per week of walking or cycling) were assessed using multivariate Poisson regression with hierarchical selection of variables.

Results:

Physical inactivity in transportation was associated with the presence of vehicles in the household in men (PR = 2.96) and women (PR = 2.42), with linear trend for both sexes (P < .001 and P = .004, respectively), even after adjusting for age, schooling level and chronic diseases (this last factor, only among women).

Conclusions:

Presence of vehicles in the household was associated positively with physical inactivity in transportation, both for men and for women. This should be taken into consideration in drawing up public policies for promoting physical activity.

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Cristiano Marcellino, Ruth Liane Henn, Maria Teresa Anselmo Olinto, Ana Weigert Bressan, Vera Maria Vieira Paniz and Marcos Pascoal Pattussi

Background:

Physical inactivity is one of the most important modifiable risk factors that is raising the global burden of chronic diseases.

Methods:

This is a cross-sectional, population-based study of 790 women aged 20 years or older living in the urban area of a municipality in Southern Brazil. The level of physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, short form. Inactivity was defined as fewer than 150 min/wk−1 spent in moderate or vigorous physical activities. Prevalence ratios were calculated by robust Poisson regression.

Results:

The prevalence of physical inactivity was 48.7% (95% CI, 43.3%–54.1%). After adjusting for confounders, we found a linear trend for increasing prevalence of physical inactivity with increasing body mass index (P = .008). Women who were married or in a domestic partnership were 29% less physically active than single women (P = .044). A borderline association was detected between the presence of minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) and physical inactivity (P = .058).

Conclusions:

There was a high prevalence of inactivity. Obese women, those married or in domestic partnerships and those with MPD were more likely to lead an inactive lifestyle. These results suggest that strategies are required for breaking down barriers to physical activity in this demographic group.