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Chung-Chao Liang, Qi-Xing Change, Yu-Chou Hung, Chizan-Chung Chen, Chun-Hsiang Lin, Yu-Chun Wei and Jia-Ching Chen

aging populations ( Department of Information Services, Executive Yuan, 2015 ). Evidence has suggested that physical performance and balance decline with age ( Auyeung, Lee, Leung, Kwok, & Woo, 2014 ; Ishizaki et al., 2011 ; Wang, Yeh, Wang, Wang, & Lin, 2011 ). Declining mobility and low levels of

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Nai-Hsin Meng, Chia-Ing Li, Chiu-Shong Liu, Wen-Yuan Lin, Chih-Hsueh Lin, Chin-Kai Chang, Tsai-Chung Li and Cheng-Chieh Lin

Objectives:

To compare muscle strength and physical performance among subjects with and without sarcopenia of different definitions.

Design:

A population-based cross-sectional study.

Participants:

857 community residents aged 65 years or older.

Methods:

Sarcopenia was defined according to the European Working Group of Sarcopenia in Older People consensus criteria. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured lean soft tissue mass. Sarcopenic participants with low height-adjusted or weight-adjusted skeletal muscle index (SMI) were classified as having h-sarcopenia or w-sarcopenia, respectively. Combined sarcopenia (c-sarcopenia) was defined as having either h- or w-sarcopenia. The participants underwent six physical performance tests: walking speed, timed up-and-go, six-minute walk, single-leg stance, timed chair stands, and flexibility test. The strength of five muscle groups was measured.

Results:

Participants with h-sarcopenia had lower weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and absolute muscle strength (p ≤ .001); those with w-sarcopenia had higher weight, BMI, fat mass (p < .001), and low relative muscle strength (p ≤ .003). Participants with c-sarcopenia had poorer performance in all physical performance tests, whereas h-sarcopenia and w-sarcopenia were associated with poor performance in four tests.

Conclusion:

Subjects with h- and w-sarcopenia differ significantly in terms of obesity indicators. Combining height- and weight-adjusted SMIs can be a feasible method to define sarcopenia.

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Milan Chang, Suzanne Leveille, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield and Jack M. Guralnik

The Hebrew Home Study of Impairment and Exercise is a cross-sectional community-based study of nondisabled adults age 75–85 years that assessed attitude toward exercise by asking level of agreement with four statements evaluating participants’ perceptions of the health benefits and personal rewards of exercise. A physical-performance battery evaluated lower extremity function on a scale of 0 to 12. Attitude toward exercise was compared across 4 groups: non-vigorous exercisers with scores of 4–6 (n = 21), 7–9 (n = 90), or 10–12 (n = 113) and vigorous exercisers (n = 71). Vigorous exercisers had a significantly better attitude toward exercise than the reference group did, with odds ratios of 1.8-5.5 in all attitude statements. The lowest and moderate-performance groups had less positive attitudes toward exercise than the reference group did, with odds ratios of 0.27–0.62 for all statements. There was a highly significant gradient with better attitude toward exercise and higher functional-status level. Future work in improving older adults’ compliance with exercise should take into account the less positive attitude of those with functional limitations toward the benefits of exercise.

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Marco Rathschlag and Daniel Memmert

The present study examined the relationship between self-generated emotions and physical performance. All participants took part in five emotion induction conditions (happiness, anger, anxiety, sadness, and an emotion-neutral state) and we investigated their influence on the force of the finger musculature (Experiment 1), the jump height of a counter-movement jump (Experiment 2), and the velocity of a thrown ball (Experiment 3). All experiments showed that participants could produce significantly better physical performances when recalling anger or happiness emotions in contrast to the emotion-neutral state. Experiments 1 and 2 also revealed that physical performance in the anger and the happiness conditions was significantly enhanced compared with the anxiety and the sadness conditions. Results are discussed in relation to the Lazarus (1991a, 2000a) cognitive-motivational-relational (CMR) theory framework.

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Herbert Wagner, Patrick Fuchs, Andrea Fusco, Philip Fuchs, Jeffrey W. Bell and Serge P. von Duvillard

directions, and hard body contacts that are frequently interspersed with low-intensity movements such as standing and walking. 1 – 6 Consequently, in both sexes, physical performance in team handball is essential to tolerate these intense and dynamic movements and to prevent injuries, whereas the

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Javier Horcajo, Borja Paredes, Guillermo Higuero, Pablo Briñol and Richard E. Petty

-task performance, including physical performance ( Hatzigeorgiadis et al., 2011 ; see Tod, Edwards, McGuigan, & Lovell, 2015 for an additional review). This is an important finding, given that physical performance (e.g., maximal strength, endurance, or power) is a key factor of most sports (e.g., see Baechle

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Jian Xu, Poram Choi, Robert W. Motl and Stamatis Agiovlasitis

, 2012 ; Oppewal, Hilgenkamp, van Wijck, & Evenhuis, 2013 ). Lower-extremity physical functioning can be evaluated with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), which has been applied to a wide range of populations, including community-dwelling older adults, adults with multiple sclerosis, and

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Kira L. Innes, Jeffrey D. Graham and Steven R. Bray

playing on the same team, lower social physique anxiety, and more positive attitudes toward sport. Consistent with theory, all pathways were mediated through self-efficacy. As noted previously, self-efficacy is positively related to physical performance ( Beauchamp et al., 2019 ; Feltz et al., 2008

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Shanelle Sorbello, Vu Quang Do, Anna Palagyi and Lisa Keay

falls in older adults ( Black, Wood, & Lovie-Kitchin, 2011 ; Freeman et al., 2007 ; Ivers et al., 1998 ; Patino et al., 2010 ). However, the mechanism by which reduced vision mediates falls remains unclear ( Lamoureux et al., 2010 ; Lord & Menz, 2000 ). The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB

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Billy T. Hulin, Tim J. Gabbett, Nathan J. Pickworth, Rich D. Johnston and David G. Jenkins

performance, acute and chronic workloads, and injury risk will inform decision-making practices in professional team sport. Indeed, workload values that increase the likelihood of improved physical performance and decreased injury risk may be provided by microtechnology-derived workloads. Williams et al 14