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Matthew P. Bejar, Leslee A. Fisher, Benjamin H. Nam, Leslie K. Larsen, Jamie M. Fynes and Rebecca A. Zakrajsek

Although the biopsychosocial model of sport injury rehabilitation (Brewer, Andersen, & Van Raalte, 2002) is one of the most comprehensive frameworks to address athletes’ postinjury responses, there has been little research centralizing the myriad of cultural factors (e.g., nationality, ethnicity, socioeconomic status) that can impact psychological, social/contextual, and biological factors that, in turn, impact athletes’ recovery. The purpose of the current study was to explore high-level South Korean athletes’ experiences of injury and rehabilitation. Retrospective semistructured interviews were conducted with 11 retired high-level South Korean athletes. Employing Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) methodology (Hill, 2012), four domains were constructed from the data: (a) Experience of the South Korean Sport System, (b) Immediate Post-Injury Perceptions, (c) Experience of Recovery Process, and (d) Post-Injury Reflections. The findings indicated that participants’ experiences of the forced hierarchy and power dynamics within the South Korean athletic specialist system influenced perceived sport injury rehabilitation outcomes.

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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens and Edson Filho

Social connectedness   Optimism   Taking calculated risks         Physical recovery       Realizing a Contemporary Circus Career The realizing phase spanned from the moment the participants started to contemplate a professional circus career, to the moment they achieved their first contract as a

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Diane M. Wiese and Maureen R. Weiss

Psychological rehabilitation in response to physical injury is of primary concern to athletes, trainers, coaches, and sport psychologists. To date, there is little empirical research to shed light on this topic, as well as on the role of sport psychology practitioners in facilitating the prevention, rehabilitation, and recovery from athletic injuries. The purpose of this paper is to consolidate and report the information available on the nature of injuries and make suggestions concerning the application of sport psychology principles when working with injured athletes. Four major concerns are addressed with regard to current knowledge and practical implications: how injuries happen, how athletes respond to injuries, how psychological rehabilitation as well as physical recovery from injuries can be facilitated, and determining when injured athletes are psychologically ready to return to competition.

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Selenia di Fronso, Fabio Y. Nakamura, Laura Bortoli, Claudio Robazza and Maurizio Bertollo

The aim of the study was to examine differences in stress and recovery across gender and time (preseason and play-offs) in a sample of amateur basketball players of the Italian league (C division). Fifty amateur basketball players (33 men and 17 women) age 17–30 y (23.5 ± 9.19 y) participated in the study. Twenty-eight athletes (16 men and 12 women) completed the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Sport (RESTQ-Sport) in the preseason phase, after a training period of 21 days, and in the competition phase during the play-off period. Repeated-measures MANOVA showed significant differences by gender and preparation phase. Univariate follow-up ANOVA highlighted differences by gender on physical recovery, sleep quality, and self-efficacy, with higher scores in men. Moreover, differences between preseason and competition phases were shown on emotional stress and fatigue, with higher scores on emotional stress and lower scores on fatigue in the competition phase. These findings suggest that RESTQ-Sport could be a useful tool for coaches to monitor stress/recovery balance in male and female team-sport athletes during different periods of the season.

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Alistair P. Murphy, Rob Duffield, Aaron Kellett and Machar Reid


Planning tennis sessions accentuating physical development requires an understanding of training load (TL). The aims were to describe the external and internal TL of drills and analyze relationships between ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), TL, and other measures.


Fourteen elite-level junior tennis athletes completed 259 individual drills. Six coaches helped devise classifications for all drills: recovery/defensive, open pattern, accuracy, 2-on-1 open, 2-on-1 net play, closed technical, point play, and match play. Notational analysis on stroke and error rates was performed postsession. Drill RPE and mental exertion were collected postdrill, while heart rate (HR) was recorded continuously.


Recovery/defensive, open pattern, and point play were significantly greater than closed technical drills (P < .05) for RPE and mental exertion, as were accuracy drills and match play (P < .05). Recovery/defensive, open-pattern, accuracy, and 2-on-1 open drills had higher stroke rates than match play (P < .05). Error rates of closed technical drills were significantly higher than for open pattern, 2-on-1 drills, point play, and match play (P < .05). No HR differences were observed (P > .05) between categories. Substantial correlations existed for drill RPE and TL with mental exertion (r > .62) for several categories. TL was substantially correlated with total strokes (r > .65), while HR and stroke and error rates were in slight to moderate agreement with RPE and TL (r < .51).


Recovery/defensive drills are highest in physiological stress, making them ideal for maximizing physicality. Recovery/defensive drills compromised training quality, eliciting high error rates. In contrast, 2-on-1 net-play drills provided the lowest error rates, potentially appropriate for error-amelioration practice. Open-pattern drills were characterized by significantly higher stroke rates, suggesting congruence with high-repetition practice. Finally, with strong relationships between physical and mental perception, mental exertion may complement currently used monitoring strategies (TL and RPE).

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Caoimhe Tiernan, Mark Lyons, Tom Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles Warrington

–10 Fatigue Likert scale 1–10 Energy Likert scale 1–10 Physical recovery Likert scale 1–10 32 Nonsports stress Yes/no Note: Likert scale for muscle soreness, stress level, fatigue, and stiffness: 1 = very sore/stress/fatigue and 10 = not sore/stress/fatigue. For physical recovery and energy: 1 = no energy

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Jahan Heidari, Johanna Belz, Monika Hasenbring, Jens Kleinert, Claudia Levenig and Michael Kellmann

stress,” “emotional stress,” “social stress,” “conflicts/pressure,” fatigue, “lack of energy,” and “physical complaints” representing the stress concept. In comparison, the scales “success,” social recovery, “physical recovery,” general well-being, and sleep quality cover the field of recovery. A

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Kenneth C. Lam and Jessica G. Markbreiter

example, previous findings 26 , 27 investigating severe injuries, such as anterior cruciate ligament ruptures, have reported a fear of reinjury after being cleared for participation, suggesting a lingering psychological component even after a full physical recovery. We hypothesize that perhaps lingering

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Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Laurent Bosquet, Michel Brink, Aaron J. Coutts, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Shona L. Halson, Anne Hecksteden, Jahan Heidari, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Romain Meeusen, Iñigo Mujika, Claudio Robazza, Sabrina Skorski, Ranel Venter and Jürgen Beckmann

the previous 3 days and nights and addresses both nonspecific and sport-specific areas of stress and recovery. The questionnaire includes 76 statements that are divided into 7 general stress scales, 5 general recovery scales (eg, physical recovery), 3 sport-specific stress scales (eg, emotional

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Travis Anderson, Amy R. Lane and Anthony C. Hackney

for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport 18 ). Subjects were asked to complete a RESTQ-Sport twice each training week. In completing the questionnaire, the subjects were asked to answer questions related to general stress, emotional stress, fatigue, and physical recovery, among others, in relation to the previous 3