Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 69 items for :

  • "physical stress" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Mitch D. VanBruggen, Anthony C. Hackney, Robert G. McMurray, and Kristin S. Ondrak

Purpose:

The effect of exercise intensity on the tracking of serum and salivary cortisol responses was examined in 12 endurance-trained males (maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] = 58.2 ± 6.4 mL/kg/min).

Methods:

Subjects rested for 30 min (control) and exercised on a cycle ergometer for 30 min at 40% (low), 60% (moderate), and 80% (high intensity) of VO2max on separate days. Serum and saliva samples were collected pretrial, immediately posttrial, and 30 min into the recovery period from each trial.

Results:

Cortisol responses increased significantly for both serum (40.4%; P = .001) and saliva (170.6%; P = .007) only in response to high-intensity exercise. Peak saliva cortisol occurred at 30 min of recovery, whereas peak serum was at the immediate posttrial sampling time point. The association between serum and saliva cortisol across all trials was examined using concordance correlation (R c) analysis, which accounts for repeated measures. The overall correlation between serum and saliva cortisol levels in all matched samples was significant (R c = 0.728; P = .001). The scatter plot revealed that salivary cortisol responses tracked closely to those of serum at lower concentrations, but not as well at higher concentrations.

Conclusions:

Findings suggest salivary measurements of cortisol closely mirror those in the serum and that peak salivary concentrations do not occur until at least 30 min into the recovery from intense exercise.

Restricted access

Teri J. Hepler and Matt Andre

distinct effects of mental and physical stressors ( Porcelli & Delgado, 2017 ; Starcke & Brand, 2016 ). In terms of mental stress, most previous studies have reported negative effects on decision outcomes. For instance, a within-subjects study involving experienced male soccer players reported that mental

Restricted access

Joanne Perry, Ashley Hansen, Michael Ross, Taylor Montgomery, and Jeremiah Weinstock

, physical stressor, and sport-specific stressor), and (2) explore the potential clinical utility and research applications of an athlete-specific adaptation of this stress assessment protocol. Stress Assessment Protocol This study adapted the Stress Assessment Protocol outlined in Khazan ( 2013 ) in order

Restricted access

Jaime S. Rosa, Christina D. Schwindt, Stacy R. Oliver, Szu-Yun Leu, Rebecca L. Flores, and Pietro R. Galassetti

Leukocytosis contributes to exercise-induced immune modulation, which is a mechanism of cardiovascular protection. However, this process is poorly defined in children. We therefore measured leukocytes in 45 healthy, 18 overweight, 16 type 1 diabetic, and 8 asthmatic children at pre, end-, and 30-min postexercise (30-min intermittent or 6-min continuous). In all groups, total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes increased at end-exercise, but returned to baseline by 30-min postexercise, including neutrophils, previously reported to remain elevated for at least some exercise formats. This highly preserved pattern indicates the importance of the adaptive response to physical stress across multiple health conditions.

Restricted access

Emily Kroshus and J.D. DeFreese

Athlete burnout is an important psychological health concern that may be influenced by coach behaviors. Participants were 933 collegiate soccer coaches who described their utilization of burnout prevention strategies. Deductive content analysis was used to categorize and interpret responses. The most frequently endorsed prevention strategies involved managing/limiting physical stressors. Reducing nonsport stressors and promoting autonomy and relatedness were also endorsed. Motivational climate changes and secondary prevention strategies were infrequently reported. These findings can help inform the design of educational programming to ensure that all coaches are aware of the range of ways in which they can help prevent athlete burnout.

Restricted access

Patrick Pelayo, Morgan Alberty, Michel Sidney, François Potdevin, and Jeanne Dekerle

The purposes of this review were (1) to review the recent studies conducted in swimming on the assessment of aerobic potential and establishment of exercise-intensity domains (it is important that exercise-intensity domains be accurately defined and their physiological underpinnings well understood to optimize and evaluate training programs); (2) to analyze changes in traditionally measured stroke rate and stroke length during exhaustive swims, particularly in relation to the predetermined intensity domains (introduction of an “optimal swimming technique speed”); and (3) to introduce the latest swimming research on arm coordination that might help us better understand the technical adaptations of swimmers under physical stress.

Restricted access

Panagiota Klentrou

Although osteoporosis is considered a geriatric disease, factors affecting bone strength are most influential during child growth and development. This article reviews what is known and still unclear in terms of bone growth, development and adaptation relative to physical activity before and during puberty. Bone is responsive to certain exercise protocols early in puberty and less so in postpubertal years, where bone strength, rather than bone mass, being the outcome of interest. Mechanical loading and high impact exercise promote bone strength. Intense training before and during puberty, however, may negatively affect bone development. Future research should focus on increasing our mechanistic understanding of the manner by which diverse physical stressors alter the integrity of bone. Longitudinal studies that examine the extent to which muscle and bone are comodulated by growth in children are also recommended.

Restricted access

José M.C. Soares, Paulo Mota, José A. Duarte, and Hans J. Appell

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether children showed similar signs of muscle overuse like adults after intense exercise. One child group (n = 10) and one adult group (n = 10) of males both had to perform five series of bench press exercises at an intensity of 80% of maximum strength until exhaustion. Maximum isometric strength, subjective perception of muscle pain, was measured before, immediately after, 48 hr, 72 hr, and 1 week after the exercise. Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity was measured before, 48 hr, 72 hr, and 1 week after the exercise. The adults showed all symptoms of muscle overuse: reduced strength, muscle pain, and elevated CK activities until 3 days after the exercise. In contrast, the children experienced only some light muscle pain, but neither showed reduced strength nor elevated CK activities. It is concluded that children’s muscles can easier withstand physical stress than adult muscles.

Restricted access

Daniel Gould, Dana Bridges, Eileen Udry, and Laurie Beck

This study was designed to identify specific stress sources in elite skiers who suffered season-ending injuries and compare stress source factor differences between unsuccessful and successful postinjury performers. Retrospective qualitative interviews were conducted with 21 U.S. alpine and freestyle ski team members who suffered season-ending injuries. Results were content analyzed and revealed that the 182 stress source raw data themes coalesced into eight higher order dimensions including: psychological, social, physical, medical/rehab, financial, career, missed nonski opportunities, and other. The successful versus unsuccessful skier comparisons revealed that a greater percentage of unsuccessful skiers reported a lack of attention/empathy and negative relationship social dimension concerns, as well as poor performance and inactivity physical dimension concerns. Successful skiers reported more isolation concerns. Findings are discussed relative to how athletic injuries result in not only physical stressors, but a broad range of social and psychological stressors.

Restricted access

Cori Sinnott, Hayley M. White, Jennifer W. Cuchna, and Bonnie L. Van Lunen

Clinical Scenario:

Achilles tendinopathy is a painful condition commonly affecting the general and athletic population. It presents with localized pain, stiffness, and swelling in the midportion of the Achilles tendon. The physical stress placed on the tendon results in microtrauma, which leads to subsequent inflammation and degeneration. While it is not surprising that this condition affects the physically active, nearly one-third of Achilles tendinopathy cases occur in sedentary individuals. Etiology for this condition stems from a change in loading patterns and/or overuse of the tendon, resulting in microscopic tearing and degenerative changes. There are numerous causes contributing to the maladaptive response in these patients, such as mechanical, age-related, genetic, and vascular factors. The treatment for these patients is typically load management and eccentric strengthening of the gastrocnemius–soleus complex. Unfortunately, conservative treatment can lead to surgical intervention in up to 45% of cases. A relatively new phenomenon in the treatment of this condition is the use of autologous blood injections (ABI) and platelet-rich plasma injections (PRPI). This need for a less invasive treatment fostered more investigation into ABI and PRPI to treat these nonresponsive patients. However, the evidence concerning the effectiveness of these treatments in patients with Achilles tendinopathy has not been synthesized.

Focused Clinical Question:

In patients with Achilles tendinopathy, how do variations of ABI and PRPI compared with a placebo and/or eccentric training affect pain and function?