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Flávia Cavalcante Monteiro Melo, Kátia Kamila Félix de Lima, Ana Paula Knackfuss Freitas Silveira, Kesley Pablo Morais de Azevedo, Isis Kelly dos Santos, Humberto Jefferson de Medeiros, José Carlos Leitão and Maria Irany Knackfuss

exercise raises the risks of the emergence of comorbidities such as the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, mainly responsible for the death of people with paraplegia. 5 In this context, research such as the one of Bortolloti and Tsukamoto 6 reveals that physical training improves the strength

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Sakiho Miyauchi, Satomi Oshima, Meiko Asaka, Hiroshi Kawano, Suguru Torii and Mitsuru Higuchi

The purpose of this study was to determine whether overfeeding and high-intensity physical training increase organ mass. We examined this question using cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in which we measured collegiate male American football players. Freshman (n = 10) and senior players in their second and third years of college (n = 17) participated in the cross-sectional study. The same measurements of the same freshman players (n = 10) were assessed after the one-year weight gain period in the longitudinal study. Fat-free mass (FFM), skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue mass were obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Liver, kidney, brain, and heart volumes were calculated using magnetic resonance imaging or echocardiography. Compared with the freshman players, the senior players had 10.8 kg more FFM, and 0.29 kg, 0.08 kg, and 0.09 kg greater liver, heart, and kidney mass, respectively. In the longitudinal study, FFM, liver, heart, and kidney mass of the freshman players increased by 5.2 kg, 0.2 kg, 0.04 kg, and 0.04 kg, respectively, after one year of overfeeding and physical training. On the other hand, the organ-tissue mass to FFM ratio did not change, except for the brain, in either the cross-sectional or longitudinal studies. Our results indicated that the organtissue masses increased with overfeeding and physical training in male collegiate American football players.

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Bruno P. Melo, Débora A. Guariglia, Rafael E. Pedro, Dennis A. Bertolini, Solange de Paula Ramos, Sidney B. Peres and Solange M. Franzói de Moraes

, 16 being useful for monitoring alterations resulting from physical training, 39 especially when there are risks of manipulation of contaminated material, such as blood, in uncontrolled environments (eg, fitness centers). Some limitations need to be highlighted, such as sample size and mouth health

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Brian M. Moore, Joseph T. Adams, Sallie Willcox and Joseph Nicholson

.gov, OTseeker ( http://www.otseeker.com ), and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro: https://www.pedro.org.au ). Databases were searched using both subject headings and text keywords related to physical therapy (“physical therapy” and “physiotherapy”), active physical training interventions (“exercise

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Maximiliano I. Schaun, Leonardo Lisboa Motta, Rayane Teixeira, Fábio Klamt, Juliane Rossato, Alexandre Machado Lehnen, Maria Cláudia Irigoyen and Melissa M. Markoski

In acute myocardial infarction (AMI), reactive oxygen species may cause irreversible damage to the heart tissue. Physical training is capable of enhancing antioxidant capacity, acting as a cardioprotective factor. We assessed the preventive effects of physical training on the antioxidant and functional responses of the heart of Wistar Kyoto rats after AMI. Wistar Kyoto rats (n = 12) were allocated to sedentary (SED) or trained (EXE—aerobic training on a treadmill) groups. Echocardiographic exams were performed 48 hr before and 48 hr after the induction of AMI. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and total glutathione (GSH) were measured in vitro in the heart tissue. After AMI, the EXE group showed higher left ventricular shortening fraction (29%; p = .004), higher cardiac output (37%; p = .032) and reduced myocardial infarction size (16%; p = .007) than SED. The EXE group showed a higher nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity (GSH, 23%; p = .004), but the SOD and CAT activities were higher in SED (23% SOD; p = .021 and 20% CAT; p = .016). In addition, the SOD activity was positively correlated with myocardial infarction size and inversely correlated with cardiac output. Physical training partially preserved cardiac function and increased intracellular antioxidant response in cardiac tissue of animals after AMI.

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Carla Cristiane da Silva, Ligia Maxwell Pereira, Jefferson Rosa Cardoso, Jonathan Patrick Moore and Fábio Yuzo Nakamura

The positive effects of physical training on heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy adults are widely recognized; however, the responsiveness to training in healthy children has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of physical training on HRV in prepubertal healthy children. Systematic computerized searches were performed from 1950 to 2012 in the following databases: Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Lilacs, Scielo, SportDiscus, ProQuest; Web of Science; PEDro; Academic Search Premier and the Cochrane Library. The key words used were: heart rate variability, autonomic nervous system, exercise training, physical activity, continuous exercise, intermittent exercise, children, prepubescent, adolescents, and healthy. Although the database search initially identified 6,164 studies, after removing duplicates and excluding by title the number was 148, however, only 2 studies were included in this systematic review. The meta-analysis compared the experimental group (n = 29) with the control group (n = 28) for the HRV parameters: RR intervals, SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50, LF (log), HF (log), LF/HF and Total Power (log). The meta-analysis demonstrated similar HRV indices between both the experimental and control groups. In conclusion, the available results from randomized controlled trials do not support the hypothesis that physical training improves HRV in healthy children[AUQ2].

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Alison Crosbie

Objective

Asthma is a leading cause of chronic illness in children, impacting heavily on their daily life and participation in physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the evidence for the use of physical therapy to improve pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in children with asthma. Furthermore, the review aims to update previous literature on the effect of exercise on health related quality of life.

Methods

A search was conducted for randomized control trials (RCTs) using the electronic databases Medline, Embase, SPORTDiscus, AMED, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Studies were included if the participants were asthmatic children aged 6–18 years participating in any mode of physical exercise. Studies were reviewed for study quality, participant details, exercise intervention details, and intervention outcomes.

Results

A total of 16 studies and 516 subjects met inclusion criteria for review. Severity of asthma ranged from mild to severe. No improvement in pulmonary function was observed. Physical training led to an increase in aerobic capacity as measured by VO2max (mL/kg/min).

Conclusions

Findings suggest that physical training does not improve pulmonary function in children with asthma, but does increase aerobic capacity. The small number of studies investigating quality of life suggests that physical training does improve health related quality of life; however further well designed randomized control trials are needed to verify these findings.

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John D. Robertson, Ronald J. Maughan, Ann C. Milne and Ronald J.L. Davidson

Blood biochemical indices of iron status were measured in venous blood from 20 runners and 6 control subjects. All subjects were.male, ages 20 to 40 years, and stable with regard to body weight and degree of physical activity. Dietary analysis was undertaken using a 7-day weighed food intake. There was no evidence of iron deficiency: hemoglobin concentrations and serum femtin levels were within the normal population range for all individuals. However, serum ferritin was negatively correlated with the amount of training. Daily iron intake appeared to be adequate; iron intake was correlated with protein intake but not related to training or energy intake. Serum ferritin, an indicator of iron status, was significantly correlated with vitamin C intake but not iron intake. Serum transferrin concentration was higher in the group of athletes undertaking a high weekly training load compared with the control subjects, suggesting an alteration in iron metabolism although there was no evidence of increased erythropoiesis. The biological significance of this is unclear.

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M. Jonathan King, Timothy David Noakes and Eugene Godfrey Weinberg

Twelve boys with atopic asthma, ages 9-14 years, were divided equally into exercise and control groups. Identical measurements were made before and after a 3-month trial period during which the exercise group was trained. The trained group, but not the control group, showed significant improvements in parameters of physical fitness including maximum oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) and peak running velocity during the maximal treadmill test (p<0.05). Treadmill velocity at the lactate tumpoint was greater and heart rate during submaximal exercise was lower in the trained subjects after the trial period. Subjective and objective findings (less use of medication, fewer asthmatic attacks, increased physical activity) suggested that clinical asthma improved with training. However exercise-induced asthma (EIA), measured by the airway’s response to a standardized treadmill run, did not alter with training.