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Kiyoji Tanaka, Ryosuke Shigematsu, Masaki Nakagaichi, Hunkyung Kim, and Nobuo Takeshima

In Japan, 2 approaches have been adopted to assess health and functional status in older adults. One is a battery of physical-performance tasks. The other is estimation of physical vitality using biomedical risk factors. Previous research has examined strength and direction of the relationship between functional fitness and performance on activities of daily living. Vital-age tests have most often been used to assess risk for developing a variety of age-related diseases. The present study examined interrelationships among functional fitness and vital-age scores in Japanese women (N = 129, mean age = 71.9). The functional fitness test battery consisted of arm curls, walking around 2 cones, moving beans with chopsticks, and functional reach. The vital-age test battery consisted of 6 coronary heart disease risk factors (systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, abdominal girth, and hematocrit) and 5 physical-performance variables (oxygen uptake and heart rate at lactate threshold, side-to-side stepping, 1-leg balance with eyes closed, and forced expiratory volume).

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Mark Dyreson

( Dorgan, 1976 ; Johnson, 1979 ). Gulick was a leader in a global movement to convince modern societies that the physical vitality of their citizens was an essential element in the political, economic, and cultural health of their communities. Like his contemporary, the French rénovateur of the modern

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Mark S. Dyreson

changes in “average” human bodies documented by archaeological comparisons of hunting and foraging cultures versus agricultural civilizations. Statistical compendia of human height have long been employed as rough measures of general physical vitality. While many assume that average human height has

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John D. Fair

in, but for Williams it was devoid of any prurient intent. She exhibited a healthy image achieved through pursuit of the Greek ideal of mens sana in corpore sano . Proper diet and sufficient exercise helped her experience mental and physical vitality to enjoy life to the fullest. “I get most of my

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Patricia Vertinsky

scholarly interest in physical education pursued by women” ( St Denis & Shawn, 1925 , p. 15). In their own way, says Janice Ross, both women would link dance to a new portrait of the American woman’s physical vitality, and in the case of H’Doubler, help make the university safe for dance, even though by the