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Michael Reinboth and Joan L. Duda

Grounded in achievement goal theory (Nicholls, 1989), the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of the perceived motivational climate and perceptions of ability to indices of psychological and physical well-being among male adolescents taking part in team sports. Participants were 265 adolescent soccer and cricket players. Reported self-esteem was the lowest among low perceived ability athletes participating in an environment that was perceived to be high in its ego-involving features, but high among athletes perceiving a highly task-involving environment regardless of their perceptions of competence. Contingent self-esteem, physical exhaustion, and reported physical symptoms were positively predicted by perceptions of an ego-involving climate. The results suggest that an examination of variations in the perceived motivational climate may provide further insight into whether sport participation can be health promotive or potentially damaging to athletes’ welfare.

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Niall Casserly, Ross Neville, Massimiliano Ditroilo and Adam Grainger

development trajectories of junior age grade players has considerable implications with regards to players’ physical well-being. Knowledge in this area can aid in improving programming within “Long Term Player Development” (LTPD) pathways, 6 which have been widely implemented to help adolescents prepare for

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Annamari Maaranen, Judy L. Van Raalte and Britton W. Brewer

balking when moving slowly is perceived to reduce the likelihood of serious injury. Therefore, somewhat counterintuitively, higher levels of physical well-being and energy may intensify flikikammo severity because balking, when performing with high energy, force, and amplitude, can have more devastating

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Anass Arrogi, Astrid Schotte, An Bogaerts, Filip Boen and Jan Seghers

was hypothesized that, compared with the RG, the IG would show an ameliorated health-related fitness and enhanced perceived physical well-being and that the observed intervention effects on health-related fitness and well-being would be mediated by changes in step-based PA. Methods Recruitment and

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Alan L. Smith, Karl Erickson and Leapetswe Malete

. We then discuss youth sport as a domain for addressing public health. This is an emerging area that is expected to bring together pediatric kinesiologists and scholars from other disciplinary areas to address injury surveillance, physical well-being, mental health, and physical activity promotion

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Patricia Olaya-Contreras, Myriam Bastidas and Daniel Arvidsson

Aims:

The aim of this study is to investigate associations of screen-time and physical activity (PA) with self-efficacy for PA, intrinsic motivation to PA and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Colombian schoolchildren from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods, and to compare these variables among children with normal-weight (NW), overweight (OW) and obesity (OB).

Methods:

In 678 schoolchildren (age 10–14 years) screen-time (TV, video games, computer) and number of days being physically active ≥ 60 minutes were self-reported. Multi-item scales were used to assess self-efficacy to PA and intrinsic motivation to PA. The KIDSCREEN-27 was used to assess HRQoL.

Results:

Screen-time was associated with HRQoL in the school/learning environment dimension. Number of days being physically active was associated with self-efficacy for PA, intrinsic motivation for PA and with HRQoL concerning physical well-being, autonomy/parent relation and social support/peers. Group differences were found for days being physically active (OW = 2.8 and OB = 2.7 vs. NW = 3.3) but not for screen-time (NW = 5.0, OW = 4.7 and OB = 5.7 hrs·d-1). OW and OB scored lower on intrinsic motivation to PA than NW (OW = 19.2 and OB = 17.9 versus NW = 20.1). All 3 groups differed in physical well-being scores (NW = 50.3, OW = 48.1, OB = 40.6, P < .001).

Conclusions:

Schoolchildren with overweight and obesity from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods need additional motivational support to perform health-enhancing PA to experience higher physical well-being.

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Robert Weinberg, Robert Neff and Michael Garza

Since psychology professionals have a moral and ethical responsibility to evaluate the effectiveness of different products and services aimed at improving psychological/physical well-being, development, and/or performance, the purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Winners for Life book (and accompanying Parent Instructor Guide) on improving a variety of psychological factors for at-risk adolescents. Participants were 96 pairs from the Big Brothers/Little Brothers, Big Sisters/Little Sisters program. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Winners for Life book, Winners for Life book plus instructor guide, or control group. Each group participated in a 12-week intervention program. Results revealed that both Winners for Life book conditions resulted in greater increases in self-esteem, self-perceived goal setting ability, optimism, and hope than the control condition, with the Winners for Life book plus instructor guide condition achieving the greatest improvements.

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Annamari Maaranen, Judy L. Van Raalte and Britton W. Brewer

Flikikammo is a troubling phenomenon in which athletes lose the ability to perform previously automatic backward moving gymnastics skills as a normal part of a routine. To better understand the effects of flikikammo over time, the confidence, perceived pressure, physical well-being, energy, and stress levels of gymnasts (n = 6) and cheerleaders (n = 4) were assessed weekly over 10 weeks. Half of the participants reported experiencing flikikammo at the start of the study, and half served as age, skill level, and sport-matched controls. Athletes with flikikammo indicated that pressure from coaches and higher energy levels were related to more severe flikikammo. For participants under the age of 18, higher levels of life stress positively correlated with flikikammo, but for those over 18, higher life stress was negatively correlated with flikikammo. These findings highlight the complexity of flikikammo and suggest that complex solutions may be needed to address flikikammo issues.

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Roberto Rojas, Wolfgang Schlicht and Martin Hautzinger

The present study was designed to examine the effects of a 16-week exercise intervention on several aspects of psychological and physical well-being in a sample of HIV-1 positive individuals. An exercise group (n = 19) was compared with a control group (n = 14) prior to and following the intervention on several outcome variables, including health related quality of life, psychological well-being (depression, anxiety, global symptoms), immune parameters, and cardiopulmonary parameters. The exercise group experienced a significant improvement in cardiopulmonary fitness, and health related quality of life improved significantly in that group relative to the control group. Psychological well-being improved similarly in both groups, however, while immune indices did not change in either group. Consistent with earlier studies, it is suggested that a moderate exercise intervention enhanced the health related quality of life in HIV-1 positive individuals.

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Robin Puett, Jane Teas, Vanesa España-Romero, Enrique Garcia Artero, Duck-chul Lee, Meghan Baruth, Xuemei Sui, Jessica Montresor-López and Steven N. Blair

Background:

The importance of physical activity for health is well-established. Questions remain whether outdoor exercise additionally benefits overall mental and physical well-being.

Methods:

Using cross-sectional data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, we examined relationships of physical activity environment (PAE) with reported tension, stress, emotional outlook, and health.

Results:

11,649 participants were included. 18% exercised indoors, 54% outdoors, and 28% in both. Participants who exercised partially or entirely outdoors exercised more. In fully adjusted models, for women combined PAE was protective for worse emotional outlook (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.52–0.98). Combined PAE was also protective for reported poor health (OR for women: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.44–0.91; OR for men: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.61–0.92). Amount of physical activity modified PAE relationships with outcomes. Combined and outdoor PAE were more consistently protective for worse outcomes among high activity participants. Regardless of PAE, better outcomes were observed in active versus inactive participants.

Conclusion:

The current study suggests addition of outdoor PAE may be linked with better stress management, outlook and health perceptions for more active populations, whereas indoor PAE may be more important for low active populations. Further research should examine the order of causation and whether type of outdoor PAE (eg, urban, natural) is important.