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Bradley D. Hatfield, Thomas W. Spalding, Ross J. Apparies, Amy J. Haufler, and D. Laine Santa Maria

Latencies and peak-to-peak amplitudes of pattern-reversal evoked-potential (PREP) components of active and inactive community-dwelling healthy 61- to 77-year-olds were compared with those of active and inactive 18- to 31-year-olds to determine whether long-term physical activity involvement was associated with attenuation of age-related changes in sensory processes. Binocular PREPs were derived for each of 2 check sizes (22 × 15 ft and 41 × 30 ft of visual angle) to provide increasing challenge of spatial resolution. Analyses of the latencies revealed significant effects for age, gender, and check size such that latencies were longer for older than for young participants, men than for women, and small than for larger check sizes. Amplitudes were larger in older adults for the P100-N150 peak-to-peak difference, but physical activity history was not associated with reduction of the observed age-related increases in component latencies and amplitude. As such, physical activity does not appear to attenuate age-related decline in visual sensory processing.

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Mark Dyreson and Jaime Schultz

Since the 1981 publication of Perspectives on the Academic Discipline of Physical Education, the history of physical activity has secured a prominent place in the field of kinesiology. Yet, despite encouraging signs of growth, the subdiscipline still remains an undervalued player in the “team scholarship” approach. Without the integration of historical sensibilities in kinesiology’s biggest questions, our understanding of human movement remains incomplete. Historians of physical activity share many “big questions” and “hot topics” with researchers in other domains of kinesiology. Intriguing possibilities for integrating research endeavors between historians and scholars from other domains beckon, particularly as scientists share the historical fascination with exploring the processes of change over time.

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Kim Poag and Edward McAuley

Whereas the success of goal setting is well documented in the industrial-organizational literature (Locke & Latham, 1990), the empirical efforts to determine its effectiveness in sport settings have met with minimal success, and no studies exist that document the role played by goals in successful adherence to exercise regimens. We examined the relationships among goals, efficacy, and exercise behavior in the context of community conditioning classes. Female participants' goal efficacy was predictive of perceived goal achievement at the end of the program, and exercise self-efficacy was significantly related to subsequent intensity but not frequency of exercise participation. Moreover, a proposed interaction between exercise importance and self-efficacy failed to account for further variation in physical activity participation. The results are discussed in terms of the physical activity history of the sample and the roles played by goals and efficacy at diverse stages of the exercise process.

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Anni Rava, Anu Pihlak, Jaan Ereline, Helena Gapeyeva, Tatjana Kums, Priit Purge, Jaak Jürimäe, and Mati Pääsuke

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in body composition, neuromuscular performance, and mobility in healthy, regularly exercising and inactive older women, and examine the relationship between skeletal muscle indices and mobility. Overall, 32 healthy older women participated. They were divided into groups according to their physical activity history as regularly exercising (n = 22) and inactive (n = 10) women. Body composition, hand grip strength, leg extensor muscle strength, rapid force development, power output, and mobility indices were assessed. Regularly exercising women had lower fat mass and higher values for leg extensor muscle strength and muscle quality, and also for mobility. Leg extensor muscle strength and power output during vertical jumping and appendicular lean mass per unit of body mass were associated with mobility in healthy older women. It was concluded that long-term regular exercising may have beneficial effects on body composition and physical function in older women.

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Barbara E. Ainsworth, Mark Richardson, David R. Jacobs Jr., and Arthur S. Leon

We examined gender differences in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in 50 women and 28 men using questionnaire data and identified how LTPA status may be misclassified based on physical activity questionnaire content. LTPA was determined using the Four Week Physical Activity History modification of the Minnesota LTPA questionnaire. LTPA was classified as total, light- (≤ 4.0 METS), moderate- (4.5-5.5 METS), and heavy-intensity (≥ 6.0 METs), and household LTPA. The questionnaire was administered 14 times (every 26 days). Scores were computed as kcal·day−1 and min·day−1 with the 14 visits averaged to yield one year LTPA scores. Skewed data were log-transformed and are presented as the geometric mean. There were no gender differences in kcal·day−1 for total- (385 vs 421), moderate- (28.2 vs 23.3), and light-intensity LTPA (72.2 vs 52.6, p > .05). Heavy-intensity LTPA was greater in men than in women (98.1 vs 50.5, p = 0.01), while household LTPA was greater in women than in men (238.2 vs 134.7, p < .0001). Omission of heavy-intensity LTPA from the questionnaire reduced total LTI’A by 25% in men and 12% in women. In contrast, omission of household LTPA reduced total LTPA by 35% in men and 57% in women. Thus LTPA may be underestimated and activity status misclassified if questionnaires fail to include activities with high gender-specific participation rates.

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Molly Burger and Dennis Dolny

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among body mass index (BMI), body image perception, physical activity habits, and exercise stage of change in college-aged females. Volunteers (N = 134) completed a survey of demographics, Stage of Exercise Scale (SOES; Cardinal, 1995a; Cardinal, 1995b), Physical Activity History questionnaire (PAH; Jacobs, Hahn, Haskell, Pirie, & Sidney, 1989), and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ; Cooper, Taylor, Cooper, & Fairburn, 1987). Participants were categorized into five exercise stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. Relationships between the variables were analyzed with Pearson r correlations. Kruskal-Wallis independence tests were also used for analyses. Approximately 60% of the participants reported current physical inactivity or irregular exercise. BMI and body image score were significantly linearly related, with higher body mass indicating more negative body image (r = 30, p <.017). Significant differences existed between exercise stages for physical activity score, X2 (3, N = 134) = 19.98, p <.05. Based upon follow-up tests participants in the maintenance stage had significantly higher physical activity scores than all other stages. No significant differences were found for BMI or body image between exercise stages. Regular exercisers had the highest frequency of disordered eating and weight-preoccupied attitudes and behaviors. The majority of these women were not currently regularly physically active, professed dissatisfaction with their current level of activity, and expressed a fear of being fat. Further study directed at specific factors related to body image and exercise behaviors, as well as the impact of stage-specific interventions are suggested.

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Samuel M. Clevenger

narrative. The book’s cross-disciplinary objective makes it a notable option for sport and kinesiological history courses. Eventually, however, sport and physical activity history textbooks will hopefully reconcile with the postmodern and linguistic “turn” of historical inquiry, and find ways to effectively

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Teri A. Todd, Keely Ahrold, Danielle N. Jarvis, and Melissa A. Mache

synchronously with the kinetic ground reaction force data at 1200 Hz. Procedure Upon arriving at the biomechanics lab, participants provided informed consent and completed a demographic questionnaire, including a question regarding their physical activity history. The participant’s height and weight were

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Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Adriana Pérez, David R. Jacobs Jr, Joowon Lee, Harold W. Kohl III, and Barbara Sternfeld

, antihypertensive therapy). All data collection measures are publicly available through the CARDIA website ( http://www.cardia.dopm.uab.edu/ ). 10 Exposures: Physical Activity The CARDIA Physical Activity History (PAH) is an interviewer-administered questionnaire designed to assess usual physical activity behaviors. 11

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J. Luke Pryor, Brittany Christensen, Catherine G. R. Jackson, and Stephanie Moore-Reed

physical activity history questionnaire. Specific inclusion criteria for participation were as follows: age 35–55 years, <60 minute of physical activity per week, and <1 month of regular yoga practice in the past year. Participants were excluded if they met any of the following criteria: currently consumed