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David A. Ferrer and Rebecca Ellis

or providing information. The use of theory-based content to build physical activity interventions has been suggested 4 , 7 ; however, the evidence supporting their effectiveness is mixed. Conn et al 3 found significantly smaller effect sizes when interventions used the social cognitive theory (SCT

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Rebecca E. Hasson, Lexie R. Beemer, Andria B. Eisman, and Penelope Friday

tailored classroom-based physical activity intervention in low-resource schools [Manuscript submitted for publication]. Hasson , R.E. , Sallis , J.F. , Coleman , N. , Kaushal , N. , Nocera , V.G. , & Keith , N. ( 2021 ). COVID-19: Implications for physical activity, health disparities, and

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Gabriela Cuadra, Juliana S. Oliveira, Marina B. Pinheiro, Anne Tiedemann, Catherine Sherrington, Luiza Pivotto, Saman Khalatbari-Soltani, Sweekriti Sharma, and Nathalia Costa

, 20 The scarcity of local and context-specific research may limit policy efforts to promote physical activity in LMICs. Although several reviews have discussed physical activity interventions for older people, the evidence considered is primarily from high-income countries. 21 – 23 The assumption

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Darla Castelli and Christine Julien

-based physical activity intervention using an integrated approach: Project SMART . Frontiers in Psychology, 3408 . Jung , Y. , Dingwell , J.B. , Baker , B. , Chopra , P. , & Castelli , D.M. ( 2021 ). Cross-sectional study using virtual reality to measure cognition . Frontiers in Sports and Active

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Marissa A. Kobayashi, Sara M. St. George, Rafael O. Leite, Blanca Noriega Esquives, Rachel Wetstone, Elizabeth R. Pulgaron, Guillermo Prado, and Sara J. Czaja

( Gunter et al., 2012 ; Sember et al., 2020 ). However, existing physical activity interventions often target older adults and children separately, with few intergenerational approaches that bring them together. Intergenerational Interventions Prior research on intergenerational interventions in

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Jocelyn Kernot, Lucy Lewis, Tim Olds, and Carol Maher

studies with physical activity interventions targeting postpartum women have been face-to-face group based 9 – 12 or included one-on-one support (face to face, through SMS, or through phone), 13 – 17 which may be costly, resource intensive, and place a significant time burden on participants. Mothers

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Sheri J. Hartman, Dori Pekmezi, Shira I. Dunsiger, and Bess H. Marcus

cardiometabolic biomarkers (eg, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased triglycerides, 2-h glucose, and fasting insulin), independent of physical activity. 22 Similar to concerns in the general population, physical activity interventions have shown to be quite efficacious for increasing

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Roberto Ferriz, Alejandro Jiménez-Loaisa, David González-Cutre, María Romero-Elías, and Vicente J. Beltrán-Carrillo

, 2018 ). In this regard, several reviews and meta-analyses have recently emerged ( Biddle, Petrolini, & Pearson, 2014 ; Burns, Fu, & Podlog, 2017 ; Morton et al., 2016 ; Russ, Webster, Beets, & Phillips, 2015 ) focused on analyzing the effectiveness of school-based physical activity interventions

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Brantley K. Ballenger, Emma E. Schultz, Melody Dale, Bo Fernhall, Robert W. Motl, and Stamatis Agiovlasitis

exhaustion (1.0), upper body strength (0.8), and lower body strength (0.9) .85 (d) Sport or gaming physical activity interventions  Aguiar et al. ( 2008 )(Brazil) Pre–post 21 (100) 23.2 50-min session 3× week for 16 weeks Improved blood lactate (4.3) and functional motor skills (33%) .77  Boer and deBeer

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Lauren Ashleigh Waters, Benedicte Galichet, Neville Owen, and Elizabeth Eakin


Taking a representative snapshot of physical activity intervention trial findings published between 1996 and 2006, we empirically evaluated participant characteristics, response and retention rates, and their associations with intervention settings.


A structured database search identified 5 representative health behavior journals, from which 32 research reports of physical activity intervention trials were reviewed. Interventions settings were categorized as workplace, healthcare, home- or community-based. Information on participant and intervention characteristics was extracted and reviewed.


The majority of participants were Caucasian (86%), women (66%), healthy but sedentary (63%), and middle-aged (mean age = 51 years). Intervention response rates ranged from 20% to 89%, with the greatest response rate for healthcare and home-based interventions. Compared with nonparticipants, study participants tended to be women, Caucasian, tertiary-educated, and middle-class. Participants in workplace interventions were younger, more educated, and healthier; in community-based interventions, participants were older and more ethnically diverse. Reporting on education and income was inconsistent. The mean retention rate was 78%, with minimal differences between intervention settings.


These results emphasize the need for physical activity interventions to target men, socioeconomically disadvantaged, and ethnic minority populations. Consistent reporting of response rate and retention may enhance the understanding of which intervention settings best recruit and retain large, representative samples.