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David A. Ferrer and Rebecca Ellis

or providing information. The use of theory-based content to build physical activity interventions has been suggested 4 , 7 ; however, the evidence supporting their effectiveness is mixed. Conn et al 3 found significantly smaller effect sizes when interventions used the social cognitive theory (SCT

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Marissa A. Kobayashi, Sara M. St. George, Rafael O. Leite, Blanca Noriega Esquives, Rachel Wetstone, Elizabeth R. Pulgaron, Guillermo Prado, and Sara J. Czaja

( Gunter et al., 2012 ; Sember et al., 2020 ). However, existing physical activity interventions often target older adults and children separately, with few intergenerational approaches that bring them together. Intergenerational Interventions Prior research on intergenerational interventions in

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Jocelyn Kernot, Lucy Lewis, Tim Olds, and Carol Maher

studies with physical activity interventions targeting postpartum women have been face-to-face group based 9 – 12 or included one-on-one support (face to face, through SMS, or through phone), 13 – 17 which may be costly, resource intensive, and place a significant time burden on participants. Mothers

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Roberto Ferriz, Alejandro Jiménez-Loaisa, David González-Cutre, María Romero-Elías, and Vicente J. Beltrán-Carrillo

, 2018 ). In this regard, several reviews and meta-analyses have recently emerged ( Biddle, Petrolini, & Pearson, 2014 ; Burns, Fu, & Podlog, 2017 ; Morton et al., 2016 ; Russ, Webster, Beets, & Phillips, 2015 ) focused on analyzing the effectiveness of school-based physical activity interventions

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Sheri J. Hartman, Dori Pekmezi, Shira I. Dunsiger, and Bess H. Marcus

cardiometabolic biomarkers (eg, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased triglycerides, 2-h glucose, and fasting insulin), independent of physical activity. 22 Similar to concerns in the general population, physical activity interventions have shown to be quite efficacious for increasing

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Lauren Ashleigh Waters, Benedicte Galichet, Neville Owen, and Elizabeth Eakin


Taking a representative snapshot of physical activity intervention trial findings published between 1996 and 2006, we empirically evaluated participant characteristics, response and retention rates, and their associations with intervention settings.


A structured database search identified 5 representative health behavior journals, from which 32 research reports of physical activity intervention trials were reviewed. Interventions settings were categorized as workplace, healthcare, home- or community-based. Information on participant and intervention characteristics was extracted and reviewed.


The majority of participants were Caucasian (86%), women (66%), healthy but sedentary (63%), and middle-aged (mean age = 51 years). Intervention response rates ranged from 20% to 89%, with the greatest response rate for healthcare and home-based interventions. Compared with nonparticipants, study participants tended to be women, Caucasian, tertiary-educated, and middle-class. Participants in workplace interventions were younger, more educated, and healthier; in community-based interventions, participants were older and more ethnically diverse. Reporting on education and income was inconsistent. The mean retention rate was 78%, with minimal differences between intervention settings.


These results emphasize the need for physical activity interventions to target men, socioeconomically disadvantaged, and ethnic minority populations. Consistent reporting of response rate and retention may enhance the understanding of which intervention settings best recruit and retain large, representative samples.

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Iina Antikainen and Rebecca Ellis

Although physical activity interventions have been shown to effectively modify behavior, little research has examined the potential of these interventions for adoption in real-world settings. The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the external validity of 57 theory-based physical activity interventions using the RE-AIM framework. The physical activity interventions included were more likely to report on issues of internal, rather than external validity and on individual, rather than organizational components of the RE-AIM framework, making the translation of many interventions into practice difficult. Furthermore, most studies included motivated, healthy participants, thus reducing the generalizability of the interventions to real-world settings that provide services to more diverse populations. To determine if a given intervention is feasible and effective in translational research, more information should be reported about the factors that affect external validity.

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Valerie Senkowski, Clara Gannon, and Paul Branscum

much activity as their limiting conditions allow. Programs that increase the frequency and duration of physical activity among older adults are greatly needed, given the decline in physical activity in the aging population. A recent meta-analysis of physical activity interventions in older adults (55

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Otávio Luis Piva da Cunha Furtado, Kelly Allums-Featherston, Lauren Joy Lieberman, and Gustavo Luis Gutierrez

The authors conducted a systematic literature review on physical activity interventions for children and youth with visual impairment (VI). Five databases were searched to identify studies involving the population of interest and physical activity practices. After evaluating 2,495 records, the authors found 18 original full-text studies published in English they considered eligible. They identified 8 structured exercise-training studies that yielded overall positive effect on physical-fitness and motor-skill outcomes. Five leisure-time-physical-activity and 5 instructional-strategy interventions were also found with promising proposals to engage and instruct children and youth with VI to lead an active lifestyle. However, the current research on physical activity interventions for children and youth with VI is still limited by an absence of high-quality research designs, low sample sizes, use of nonvalidated outcome measures, and lack of generalizability, which need to be addressed in future studies.

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Doris Gebhard and Filip Mess

. However, because of heterogeneity in the type, frequency, and duration of physical activity interventions, as well as the methodological limitations of the trials, the reported effects of physical activity on people with dementia have to be interpreted with caution. Until now, evidence from which to