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Alison R. Snyder Valier, Kelsey J. Picha, and Deanne R. Fay

promotes physical and psychological health. 4 , 5 Physical activity and school-based sports participation may be even more important for those with a physical disability. Sport participation for those with a disability is empowering, reduces isolation, and aids in changing community perceptions. 6

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Rachael C. Stone, Shane N. Sweet, Marie-Josée Perrier, Tara MacDonald, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis, and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung

Adults who report having a physical disability currently represent 15% of the population worldwide ( World Health Organization, 2011 ). Unfortunately, adults with a physical disability are often subjected to negative social stigma that can restrict daily functioning and quality of life ( Dovidio

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Alexandra M. Rodriguez, Alison Ede, Leilani Madrigal, Tiffanye Vargas, and Christy Greenleaf

-Craft et al., 2012 ; Girard et al., 2018 ). However, these components have yet to be explored among athletes with physical disabilities. Internalization of appearance ideals refers to the personal acceptance of society’s ideals for the body (e.g., thinness and low body fat and muscularity; Schaefer et al

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Scott R. Swanson, Tom Colwell, and Yushan Zhao

Disability sports organizations could benefit from a better understanding of the factors leading individuals with disabilities to participate in sport. This study explored relationships among four sources of motivation (i.e., escape, self-esteem enhancement, self-improvement, and social interaction) and six forms of social support (i.e., emotional challenge, emotional support, listening support, reality confirmation, task appreciation, and task challenge) among 133 male and 60 female wheelchair athletes, ages 13–34 years. Differences in motivation and social support needs were examined according to athletes’ gender, age, playing level, skill level, years of participation, and future playing intentions. Results indicated that males were more motivated than females were by desire for escape and that long-term participants were more motivated than novices were by self-esteem enhancement. Escape, self-improvement, and social interaction were stronger motivators for high school athletes than for collegiate athletes. Importance of social support types differed according to skill level, playing level, years played, and future playing intentions.

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Celina H. Shirazipour and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung

Physical activity (PA; i.e., sport, exercise, and recreation) is an important behavior to support the physical, psychological, and social well-being of all individuals, including individuals with physical disabilities ( Carroll et al., 2014 ; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

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Gabriella McLoughlin, Courtney Weisman Fecske, Yvette Castaneda, Candace Gwin, and Kim Graber

There are limited sporting opportunities for individuals with physical disabilities, which may potentially affect participation. The Department of Health and Human Services found that 56% of individuals with disabilities do not engage in daily physical activity, and just 23% are active for at least

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James Brighton, Robert C. Townsend, Natalie Campbell, and Toni L. Williams

)ability . Sport, Education and Society, 24 ( 7 ), 702 – 713 . doi: 10.1080/13573322.2018.1452198 Ashton-Shaeffer , C. , Gibson , H.J. , Autry , C.E. , & Hanson , C.S. ( 2001 ). Meaning of sport to adults with physical disabilities: A disability sport camp experience . Sociology of Sport Journal, 18

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Krystn Orr, Katherine A. Tamminen, Shane N. Sweet, Jennifer R. Tomasone, and Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos

youth in sport ( Smith, 2003 ). Within the literature, peers are defined as individuals who share a common characteristic with each other, regardless of their preexisting relationship (e.g., Martin Ginis, Nigg, & Smith, 2013 ). For youth with physical disabilities ( Jette & Branch, 1981 ), peers may

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Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Viviane Grassmann, Krystn Orr, Amy C. McPherson, Guy E. Faulkner, and F. Virginia Wright

and behavioral benefits of inclusive PA that occurs as part of school-based activities (e.g., physical education classes) for children and youth with physical disabilities including increased peer support ( Goodwin, 2001 ), friendships ( Grenier, 2011 ; Seymour, Reid, & Bloom, 2009 ), and motor

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Marijke Hopman-Rock, Floris W. Kraaimaat, and Johannes W.J. Bijlsma

The relationship between the frequency (chronic, episodic, and sporadic) of arthritic pain in the hip and/or knee, other illness-related variables, physical disability, and a physically active lifestyle was analyzed in community-living subjects aged 55 to 74 years (N = 306). We tested the hypothesis that a physically active lifestyle is a mediating variable in the relationship between pain frequency and physical disability. Physical activity was measured with a structured interview method, and physical disability was measured with the Sickness Impact Profile. A stepwise regression model with demographic data, pain frequency, illness-related variables (such as radiological osteoarthritis and pain severity), and lifestyle variables explained 45% of the variance in physical disability; lifestyle variables explained 7% of the variance in physical disability. Our results support the hypothesis that a physically active lifestyle (in particular, sport activity) is a mediator in the relation between the frequency of pain and physical disability.