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Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Viviane Grassmann, Krystn Orr, Amy C. McPherson, Guy E. Faulkner, and F. Virginia Wright

and behavioral benefits of inclusive PA that occurs as part of school-based activities (e.g., physical education classes) for children and youth with physical disabilities including increased peer support ( Goodwin, 2001 ), friendships ( Grenier, 2011 ; Seymour, Reid, & Bloom, 2009 ), and motor

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Alison R. Snyder Valier, Kelsey J. Picha, and Deanne R. Fay

promotes physical and psychological health. 4 , 5 Physical activity and school-based sports participation may be even more important for those with a physical disability. Sport participation for those with a disability is empowering, reduces isolation, and aids in changing community perceptions. 6

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Anthony Campitelli, Sally Paulson, Jennifer Vincenzo, Jordan M. Glenn, Joshua L. Gills, Megan D. Jones, Melissa Powers, and Michelle Gray

part, due to increased physical disability among older adults ( Tak et al., 2013 ). A commonly accepted definition of physical disability is a physical condition wherein activities of daily living (ADLs) are difficult or impossible to perform ( Alley & Chang, 2007 ; Chen & Guo, 2008 ; Chen, Mao

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Alexandra M. Rodriguez, Alison Ede, Leilani Madrigal, Tiffanye Vargas, and Christy Greenleaf

-Craft et al., 2012 ; Girard et al., 2018 ). However, these components have yet to be explored among athletes with physical disabilities. Internalization of appearance ideals refers to the personal acceptance of society’s ideals for the body (e.g., thinness and low body fat and muscularity; Schaefer et al

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Celina H. Shirazipour and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung

Physical activity (PA; i.e., sport, exercise, and recreation) is an important behavior to support the physical, psychological, and social well-being of all individuals, including individuals with physical disabilities ( Carroll et al., 2014 ; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

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Alireza Khani, Mahmood Bahramizadeh, Mohammad Ali Mardani, and Taher Babaee

and very good test–retest reproducibility and has so far been used in various studies to assess the PA barriers of people with physical disability. 5 , 13 – 15 Given the fact that cultural, geographical, and community differences between different countries can affect one’s interaction with the

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Gabriella McLoughlin, Courtney Weisman Fecske, Yvette Castaneda, Candace Gwin, and Kim Graber

There are limited sporting opportunities for individuals with physical disabilities, which may potentially affect participation. The Department of Health and Human Services found that 56% of individuals with disabilities do not engage in daily physical activity, and just 23% are active for at least

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James Brighton, Robert C. Townsend, Natalie Campbell, and Toni L. Williams

, gender and (dis)ability . Sport, Education and Society, 24 ( 7 ), 702 – 713 . doi:10.1080/13573322.2018.1452198 10.1080/13573322.2018.1452198 Ashton-Shaeffer , C. , Gibson , H.J. , Autry , C.E. , & Hanson , C.S. ( 2001 ). Meaning of sport to adults with physical disabilities: A disability

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Krystn Orr, Katherine A. Tamminen, Shane N. Sweet, Jennifer R. Tomasone, and Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos

youth in sport ( Smith, 2003 ). Within the literature, peers are defined as individuals who share a common characteristic with each other, regardless of their preexisting relationship (e.g., Martin Ginis, Nigg, & Smith, 2013 ). For youth with physical disabilities ( Jette & Branch, 1981 ), peers may

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Marijke Hopman-Rock, Floris W. Kraaimaat, and Johannes W.J. Bijlsma

The relationship between the frequency (chronic, episodic, and sporadic) of arthritic pain in the hip and/or knee, other illness-related variables, physical disability, and a physically active lifestyle was analyzed in community-living subjects aged 55 to 74 years (N = 306). We tested the hypothesis that a physically active lifestyle is a mediating variable in the relationship between pain frequency and physical disability. Physical activity was measured with a structured interview method, and physical disability was measured with the Sickness Impact Profile. A stepwise regression model with demographic data, pain frequency, illness-related variables (such as radiological osteoarthritis and pain severity), and lifestyle variables explained 45% of the variance in physical disability; lifestyle variables explained 7% of the variance in physical disability. Our results support the hypothesis that a physically active lifestyle (in particular, sport activity) is a mediator in the relation between the frequency of pain and physical disability.