and behavioral benefits of inclusive PA that occurs as part of school-based activities (e.g., physical education classes) for children and youth with physical disabilities including increased peer support ( Goodwin, 2001 ), friendships ( Grenier, 2011 ; Seymour, Reid, & Bloom, 2009 ), and motor
Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Viviane Grassmann, Krystn Orr, Amy C. McPherson, Guy E. Faulkner, and F. Virginia Wright
Alison R. Snyder Valier, Kelsey J. Picha, and Deanne R. Fay
promotes physical and psychological health. 4 , 5 Physical activity and school-based sports participation may be even more important for those with a physical disability. Sport participation for those with a disability is empowering, reduces isolation, and aids in changing community perceptions. 6
Alexandra M. Rodriguez, Alison Ede, Leilani Madrigal, Tiffanye Vargas, and Christy Greenleaf
-Craft et al., 2012 ; Girard et al., 2018 ). However, these components have yet to be explored among athletes with physical disabilities. Internalization of appearance ideals refers to the personal acceptance of society’s ideals for the body (e.g., thinness and low body fat and muscularity; Schaefer et al
Celina H. Shirazipour and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung
Physical activity (PA; i.e., sport, exercise, and recreation) is an important behavior to support the physical, psychological, and social well-being of all individuals, including individuals with physical disabilities ( Carroll et al., 2014 ; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007
Gabriella McLoughlin, Courtney Weisman Fecske, Yvette Castaneda, Candace Gwin, and Kim Graber
There are limited sporting opportunities for individuals with physical disabilities, which may potentially affect participation. The Department of Health and Human Services found that 56% of individuals with disabilities do not engage in daily physical activity, and just 23% are active for at least
James Brighton, Robert C. Townsend, Natalie Campbell, and Toni L. Williams
)ability . Sport, Education and Society, 24 ( 7 ), 702 – 713 . doi: 10.1080/13573322.2018.1452198 Ashton-Shaeffer , C. , Gibson , H.J. , Autry , C.E. , & Hanson , C.S. ( 2001 ). Meaning of sport to adults with physical disabilities: A disability sport camp experience . Sociology of Sport Journal, 18
Krystn Orr, Katherine A. Tamminen, Shane N. Sweet, Jennifer R. Tomasone, and Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos
youth in sport ( Smith, 2003 ). Within the literature, peers are defined as individuals who share a common characteristic with each other, regardless of their preexisting relationship (e.g., Martin Ginis, Nigg, & Smith, 2013 ). For youth with physical disabilities ( Jette & Branch, 1981 ), peers may
Marijke Hopman-Rock, Floris W. Kraaimaat, and Johannes W.J. Bijlsma
The relationship between the frequency (chronic, episodic, and sporadic) of arthritic pain in the hip and/or knee, other illness-related variables, physical disability, and a physically active lifestyle was analyzed in community-living subjects aged 55 to 74 years (N = 306). We tested the hypothesis that a physically active lifestyle is a mediating variable in the relationship between pain frequency and physical disability. Physical activity was measured with a structured interview method, and physical disability was measured with the Sickness Impact Profile. A stepwise regression model with demographic data, pain frequency, illness-related variables (such as radiological osteoarthritis and pain severity), and lifestyle variables explained 45% of the variance in physical disability; lifestyle variables explained 7% of the variance in physical disability. Our results support the hypothesis that a physically active lifestyle (in particular, sport activity) is a mediator in the relation between the frequency of pain and physical disability.
Marie-Josée Perrier, Shaelyn M. Strachan, Brett Smith, and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung
Individuals with acquired physical disabilities report lower levels of athletic identity. The objective of this study was to further explore why athletic identity may be lost or (re)developed after acquiring a physical disability. Seven women and four men (range = 28–60 years) participated in approximately 1-hour-long semi-structured interviews; data were subjected to a narrative analysis. The structural analysis revealed three narrative types. The nonathlete narrative described physical changes in the body as reasons for diminished athletic identity. The athlete as a future self primarily focused on present sport behavior and performance goals such that behavior changes diminished athletic identity. The present self as athlete narrative type focused on the aspects of their present sport involvement, such as feedback from other athletes and skill development, which supported their athletic identity. Implications of these narrative types with respect to sport promotion among people with acquired physical disabilities are discussed.
Iva Obrusnikova and Suzanna Rocco Dillon
The study investigated beliefs and physical education goals associated with intentions of students without disabilities to play with a hypothetical peer with a physical disability in general physical education (GPE). The Children’s Intentions to Play with Peers with Disabilities in Middle School Physical Education (CBIPPD-MPE), the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Scale-9, and the Social Goal Scale were administered to a convenience sample of 359 participants. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that social goals and task-involved goals significantly contributed (p < .01) to positive behavioral, normative, and control beliefs. In addition, the three beliefs significantly contributed (p < .01) to participants’ intentions. Females had significantly higher intentions, behavioral beliefs, and social goals, whereas males had significantly higher ego-involved goals (p < .05). The findings offer empirical support for consideration of social and achievement goal theories and gender in the CBIPPD-MPE model.