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Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, Social Participation, and Loneliness Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in China

Aiqin Chu, Ye Lu, Hailing Zhang, and Yan Jiang

the occurrence of loneliness. Physical exercise may be a modifiable factor to help reduce social isolation and loneliness. Chen et al. ( 2010 ) found that physical exercise can reduce the loneliness of older adults and increase their happiness. Inactive physical exercise may be associated with a

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Regular Voluntary Running Inhibits Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Growth in Mice

Mário Esteves, Carina Silva, Sofia S. Pereira, Tiago Morais, Ângela Moreira, Madalena M. Costa, Mariana P. Monteiro, and José A. Duarte

this regard, physical exercise has been recognized as a safe and efficacious strategy for preventing and attenuating physiological and psychological sequelae of anticancer therapy. 8 Interestingly, epidemiological studies have shown that the regular practice of physical exercise following PCa

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Effect of 12-Week Rebound Therapy Exercise on Static Stability of Patients With Spinal Cord Injury

Morteza Sadeghi, Gholamali Ghasemi, and Mohammadtaghi Karimi

deformities, and bone osteoporosis. 5 To decrease the complications associated with this injury, patients have been recommended to undergo various therapeutic strategies, including the use of various orthoses to stand and walk, physical exercise to increase the range of motion of the joints and to reduce

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Evaluative Threat Increases Effort Expenditure in a Cycling Exercise: An Exploratory Study

Leila Selimbegović, Olivier Dupuy, Julie Terache, Yannick Blandin, Laurent Bosquet, and Armand Chatard

given domain facilitates effort expenditure in the unrelated domain of physical exercise. Such findings could have important theoretical and practical implications and could contribute to the understanding of acute stress responses in humans. Because there has been no prior research on this issue, this

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Older Adults’ Self-Reported Physical Activity and Distance to and Land Use Around Reported Physical Exercise Destinations

Essi-Mari Tuomola, Kirsi E. Keskinen, Timo Hinrichs, Taina Rantanen, and Erja Portegijs

Outdoor environments that enhance older people’s physical activity ideally consist of diverse facilities, destinations, and walking trails near home ( Sugiyama et al., 2012 ). Specific physical exercise destinations may encourage older people to go outdoors and spend time in these locations. Sport

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Physical Exercise as an Immunomodulator of Chronic Diseases in Aging

Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac, José Messias Rodrigues da Silva, and Rodolfo Paula Vieira

), and rheumatic diseases. 8 – 10 Consequently, inflammaging has been associated with frailty, cognitive decline, and mortality. 4 On the other hand, there is strong evidence that physical exercise can prevent or reduce age-related alterations in immune system, contributing to health improvement and the

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Physical Exercise Training Improves Quality of Life in Healthy Older Adults: A Meta-Analysis

Bente M. Raafs, Esther G.A. Karssemeijer, Lizzy Van der Horst, Justine A. Aaronson, Marcel G.M. Olde Rikkert, and Roy P.C. Kessels

unhealthy adults found effects on the physical and psychological domains of QoL, but no effect on the overall QoL ( Gillison, Skevington, Sato, Standage, & Evangelidou, 2009 ). A more recent qualitative review on physical exercise in healthy older adults showed an enhancement of QoL ( Mura et al., 2014

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Effects of the Addition of a Dual Task to a Supervised Physical Exercise Program on Older Adults’ Cognitive Performance

Juliana Hotta Ansai, Larissa Pires de Andrade, Marcele Stephanie de Souza Buto, Verena de Vassimon Barroso, Ana Claudia Silva Farche, Paulo Giusti Rossi, and Anielle Cristhine de Medeiros Takahashi

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the addition of a dual task to multicomponent training on cognition of active older adults. Eighty physically active older adults were divided into an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG). Both groups performed multicomponent training over 12 weeks. The IG simultaneously performed exercises and cognitive tasks. The Mini-Mental State Examination, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and the Clock Drawing Test were used for cognitive assessments. The Timed Up and Go Test associated with a cognitive task was used for dual-task assessment. Significant interactions were not observed between groups in terms of the cognitive variables or the dual-task performance. An interaction was observed only for Timed Up and Go Test performance, which was better in the CG than in the IG. Active older adults showed no improvement in cognition following the addition of the dual task to the multicomponent training.

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Impact of a School-Based Intervention Protocol—ACORDA Project—On Adipokines in an Overweight and Obese Pediatric Population

Henrique Nascimento, Ana Inês Alves, Ana Filipa Medeiros, Susana Coimbra, Cristina Catarino, Elsa Bronze-da-Rocha, Elísio Costa, Petronila Rocha-Pereira, Gustavo Silva, Luísa Aires, André Seabra, Jorge Mota, Helena Ferreira Mansilha, Carla Rêgo, Alice Santos-Silva, and Luis Belo

Purpose:

There are few reliable studies assessing the effect of physical exercise (PE) on adipokines levels at young ages. Our objective was to study the effects of regular PE on plasma adipokines in pediatric overweight and obesity.

Method:

117 overweight and obese children and adolescents (47% females; 10.2 years) participated in an 8-month longitudinal study divided in two groups: PE group (n = 80), engaged in an after-school PE program; control group (n = 37), with no PE program. Plasma lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, resistin, leptin, IL-6, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, insulin and glucose levels were determined.

Results:

contrarily to the control group, the PE group presented reductions in body mass index z-score (BMIzsc) and body fat percentage that were accompanied by an improvement in lipid profile and insulin resistance, a reduction in CRP and TNF-alpha and an increase in adiponectin levels. The reductions in BMIzsc were inversely correlated with changes in adiponectin (r=−0.329, p = .003) and positively correlated with changes in percentage body fat (r = .262, p = .032), triglycerides (r = .228, p = .042) and leptin (r = .285, p = .010).

Conclusion:

Moderate reductions in adiposity improve proinflammatory status in obese children and adolescents. A more substantial reduction in BMIzsc was associated with a greater increment in adiponectin and reduction in leptin.

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Auditory Statistical Learning During Concurrent Physical Exercise and the Tolerance for Pitch, Tempo, and Rhythm Changes

Tatsuya Daikoku, Yuji Takahashi, Nagayoshi Tarumoto, and Hideki Yasuda

statistical information. This suggests that we could efficiently recognize information by correlating it with acquired statistical knowledge regardless of learning conditions. Previous studies showed that concurrent physical exercise could interfere with visual statistical learning when learners were not