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Roger J. Paxton, Caitlin Feldman-Kothe, Megan K. Trabert, Leah N. Hitchcock, Raoul F. Reiser II and Brian L. Tracy

Introduction:

The purpose was to determine the effect of peripheral neuropathy (PN) on motor output variability for ankle muscles of older adults, and the relation between ankle motor variability and postural stability in PN patients.

Methods:

Older adults with (O-PN) and without PN (O), and young adults (Y) underwent assessment of standing postural stability and ankle muscle force steadiness.

Results:

O-PN displayed impaired ankle muscle force control and postural stability compared with O and Y groups. For O-PN, the amplitude of plantarflexor force fluctuations was moderately correlated with postural stability under no-vision conditions (r = .54, p = .01).

Discussion:

The correlation of variations in ankle force with postural stability in PN suggests a contribution of ankle muscle dyscontrol to the postural instability that impacts physical function for older adults with PN.

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Jian Xu, Poram Choi, Robert W. Motl and Stamatis Agiovlasitis

ID have low levels of physical functioning ( Oppewal, Hilgenkamp, van Wijck, Schoufour, & Evenhuis, 2014 ). Physical fitness levels are also very low, and balance and gait problems have been found in this group of people ( Enkelaar, Smulders, van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Geurts, & Weerdesteyn

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George J. Salem, Sean P. Flanagan, Man-Ying Wang, Joo-Eun Song, Stanley P. Azen and Gail A. Greendale

Stepping activities when wearing a weighted vest may enhance physical function in older persons. Using 3 weighted-vest resistance dosages, this study characterized the lower-extremity joint biomechanics associated with stepping activities in elders. Twenty healthy community-dwelling older adults, ages 74.5 ± 4.5 yrs, performed 3 trials of forward step-up and lateral step-up exercises while wearing a weighted vest which added 0% body weight (BW), 5% BW, or 10% BW. They performed these activities on a force platform while instrumented for biomechanical analysis. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences in ankle, knee, and hip maximum joint angles, peak net joint moments, joint powers, and impulses among both steping activities and the 3 loading conditions. Findings indicated that the 5% BW vest increased the kinetic output associated with the exercise activities at all three lower-extremity joints. These increases ranged from 5.9% for peak hip power to 12.5% for knee extensor impulse. The application of an additional 5% BW resistance did not affect peak joint moments or powers, but it did increase the joint impulses by 4–11%. Comparisons between exercise activities, across the 3 loading conditions, indicated that forward stepping preferentially targeted the hip extensors while lateral stepping targeted the plantar flexors; both activities equally targeted the knee extensors. Weighted-vest loads of 5% and 10% BW substantially increased the mechanical demand on the knee extensors, hip extensors (forward stepping), and ankle plantar flexors (lateral stepping).

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Mary Hellen Morcelli, Dain Patrick LaRoche, Luciano Fernandes Crozara, Nise Ribeiro Marques, Camilla Zamfolini Hallal, Mauro Gonçalves and Marcelo Tavella Navega

of torque development has been associated with gait speed 11 , 16 and could be a better predictor of physical function as it considers the temporal component of force application. Despite the strong probability that rate of torque development is a good predictor of lower-extremity function of older

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Anne Sofie B. Malling, Bo M. Morberg, Lene Wermuth, Ole Gredal, Per Bech and Bente R. Jensen

extremities, thus emphasizing the lack of specificity of the UPDRS-Motor score. The UPDRS-Motor score was earlier shown to correlate with several measures of physical function of both gross ( Brusse, Zimdars, Zalewski, & Steffen, 2005 ; Grill, Weuve, & Weisskopf, 2011 ; Michel, Benninger, Dietz, & van Hedel

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Jocelyn F. Hafer, Mark S. Miller, Jane A. Kent and Katherine A. Boyer

; 99 ( 1 ): 210 – 216 . doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01276.2004 10.1152/japplphysiol.01276.2004 15718402 22. Senefeld J , Yoon T , Hunter SK . Age differences in dynamic fatigability and variability of arm and leg muscles: associations with physical function . Exp Gerontol . 2017 ; 87 ( Pt A

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Yumeng Li, Melissa A. Mache and Teri A. Todd

in human postural control: methodological considerations . Entropy . 2015 ; 17 ( 12 ): 7926 – 7947 . doi:10.3390/e17127849 10.3390/e17127849 26. Decker LM , Ramdani S , Tallon G , et al . Physical function decline and degradation of postural sway dynamics in asymptomatic sedentary

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Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri, André Bonadias Gadelha, Ana Luiza Matias Correia, Juscélia Cristina Pereira, Ana Cristina de David and Ricardo M. Lima

associated with a variety of metabolic disorders, 2 however, obesity can also have a profound impact on physical function. 3 Of note, recent reports have demonstrated an association between body mass index (BMI) and falls, 4 the leading cause of accidental death among older adults. 5

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Christopher K. Rhea, Jed A. Diekfuss, Jeffrey T. Fairbrother and Louisa D. Raisbeck

complexity and aging: Implications for physical function and rehabilitation . Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 45 , 287 – 293 . PubMed ID: 22985940 doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2012.08.020 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2012.08.020 Manor , B. , Lipsitz , L.A. , Wayne , P.M. , Peng , C

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Michiel Punt, Sjoerd M. Bruijn, Ingrid G. van de Port, Ilona J.M. de Rooij, Harriet Wittink and Jaap H. van Dieën

effective programs. 5 Fall prevention programs generally aim to improve physical activity, and thereby, physical functioning. 5 By participating in fall prevention programs, fall-prone stroke survivors may be able to improve their physical activity level to some extent. However, this improvement in