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The Identity Work of Health-Conscious Sport Fans

Aaron C. Mansfield, Matthew Katz, and Elizabeth B. Delia

positioned to address this issue, and Chalip ( 2006 ) suggested the promotion of positive physical health outcomes is a principal legitimation of sport as a discipline. Limited attention, however, has been devoted to the intersection of sport fandom and physical well-being. Scholars have shown much more

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Improved Physical Health in Middle-Older Aged Golf Caddies Following 24 Weeks of High-Volume Physical Activity

Graeme G. Sorbie, Ashley K. Williams, Sophie E. Carter, Amy K. Campbell, Jonathan Glen, David Lavallee, Nicholas Sculthorpe, Andrew Murray, and Alexander J. Beaumont

literature surrounding the physical health–related impact of this role, which has led them to being identified as the “forgotten worker.” 7 Golf caddies walk on average 15,480 steps per day during caddying at the same golf course while carrying a bag weighing approximately 12 kg. 6 As a result of the

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Development of the Esportsmanship Scale and Analysis of Its Relationship to Well-Being, Physical Health Problems, Gaming Addiction Tendencies, Aggressive Feelings, Empathy, and Self-Positivity

Shiroh Ohno

-being, empathy, and feelings of self-positivity. H2 : Esportsmanship is negatively and significantly associated with players’ physical health problems, gaming addiction tendencies, and aggressive feelings. Methods Sample An online survey was conducted between June 24 and 28, 2021. Respondents between the ages of

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Dose-Response of Women’s Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and Life Satisfaction to Physical Activity

Rochelle Eime, Jack Harvey, and Warren Payne


To examine the dose-response relationship between health related quality of life (HRQoL) and life satisfaction (outcomes) and duration of recreational physical activity (exposure). Further, to explore whether these relationships depend on type of physical activity (PA).


793 Australian rural-living women self-reported on duration of recreational PA; HRQoL via SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS) and Physical Component Summary (PCS); and a life satisfaction scale. ANOVAs and ANCOVAs investigated differences in outcomes (MCS, PCS, and life satisfaction) between tertiles of exposure to recreational PA, and types of PA (club sport, gymnasium, walking), with adjustment for potential confounders.


A significant positive dose-response relationship was found between PCS and level of PA. Furthermore, this relationship depended on type of PA, with club-sport participants recording higher PCS than non-club-sport participants in all but the highest tertile of exposure. Life satisfaction and MCS were not significantly related to level of PA.


Physical health was positively associated with level of recreational PA, with club sport participation contributing greater benefits at low to moderate exposures than participation in gymnasium or walking activities.

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Are There “Healthy” and “Unhealthy” Reasons for Exercise? Examining Individual Differences in Exercise Motivations Using the Function of Exercise Scale

Patricia Marten DiBartolo, Linda Lin, Simone Montoya, Heather Neal, and Carey Shaffer

This study reports the psychometric development of a measure to assess individual differences in exercise motivations using a functionalist strategy (Snyder & Cantor, 1997). Factor analyses revealed two subscales for the newly developed Function of Exercise Scale (FES): Weight and Appearance (WA), and Health and Enjoyment (HE). FES-HE scores correlated with better psychological well-being and predicted prospectively monitored as well as concurrently and longitudinally assessed exercise behavior. FES-HE scores also correlated with lower pulse, systolic blood pressure, and salivary cortisol readings, indicating its association with better physical health. In contrast, FES-WA scores correlated with greater depressive and eating disorder symptoms, as well as lower self-esteem, and predicted the later emergence of eating disorder, but not depressive, symptoms. FES-WA scores failed to show a relationship with measures of physical well-being, including exercise engagement and vital sign data. Overall, the FES appears to hold promise as a succinct and psychometrically sound heuristic for meaningfully relating exercise motivations to important indices of both physical and psychological well-being.

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Bike Desks in the Classroom: Energy Expenditure, Physical Health, Cognitive Performance, Brain Functioning, and Academic Performance

Tine Torbeyns, Bas de Geus, Stephen Bailey, Lieselot Decroix, Jeroen Van Cutsem, Kevin De Pauw, and Romain Meeusen


Physical activity is positively associated with physical health, cognitive performance, brain functioning and academic performance. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of bike desks in the classroom on adolescents’ energy expenditure, physical health, cognitive performance, brain functioning and academic performance.


Forty-four adolescents were randomly assigned to control group (CG) or intervention group (IG). During 5 months, the IG used a bike desk for 4 class hours/week. Energy expenditure was measured during 6 consecutive days. Anthropometric parameters, aerobic fitness, academic performance, cognitive performance and brain functioning were assessed before (T0) and after (T1) the intervention.


Energy expenditure of the IG was significantly higher during the class hours in which they used the bike desks relative to normal class hours. The CG had a significantly higher BMI at T1 relative to T0 while this was not significantly different for the IG. Aerobic fitness was significantly better in the IG at T1 relative to T0. No significant effects on academic performance cognitive performance and brain functioning were observed.


As the implementation of bike desks in the classroom did not interfere with adolescents’ academic performance, this can be seen as an effective means of reducing in-class sedentary time and improving adolescents’ physical health.

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Health for Older Adults: The Role of Social Capital and Leisure-Time Physical Activity by Living Arrangements

Chia-Yuan Yu, Su-I Hou, and Jonathan Miller

distributed by living arrangement and how that might affect overall physical health, especially in older adults. The objectives of this study were to (1) explore the influence of social capital and leisure-time physical activity on the physical and mental health of older adults and (2) test whether these

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Effects of a Judo Training on Functional Fitness, Anthropometric, and Psychological Variables in Old Novice Practitioners

Simone Ciaccioni, Laura Capranica, Roberta Forte, Helmi Chaabene, Caterina Pesce, and Giancarlo Condello

benefits, and signed a written informed consent before the start of the study. Inclusion criteria comprised: (a) good mental and physical health (≥50th percentile, according to the Italian norms, Apolone et al., 2005 , of the Short Form Health Survey Version 2 [SF-12v2] questionnaire, Ware et al., 2002

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Needs and Strengths of Australian Para-Athletes: Identifying Their Subjective Psychological, Social, and Physical Health and Well-Being

Hannah Macdougall, Paul O’Halloran, Emma Sherry, and Nora Shields

The well-being needs and strengths of para-athletes in a global and sport-specific context were investigated across subjective psychological, social, and physical health and well-being dimensions. Data were drawn from (a) semistructured interviews with Australian para-athletes (n = 23), (b) a focus group with the Australian Paralympic Committee (n = 9), and (c) a confirmatory para-athlete focus group (n = 8). The well-being needs and strengths of para-athletes differed across gender, sport, level of competition, and nature of impairment. Well-being needs were an interaction between physical pain, emotional regulation, lacking purpose outside of sport, and a lack of self-acceptance, especially for athletes with acquired impairments. Well-being strengths were perceived to increase as athletes increased their level of competition, and included personal growth, optimism, strong social support networks, and contributing to multiple communities. The importance of well-being as a multidimensional concept within the global and sport-specific context for para-athletes is discussed.

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Change in Views of Aging, Physical Activity, and Physical Health Over 8 Weeks: Results From a Randomized Study

Abigail M. Nehrkorn-Bailey, Diana Rodriguez, Garrett Forsyth, Barry Braun, Kimberly Burke, and Manfred Diehl

, are still likely to reap some of the benefits ( Hupin et al., 2015 ; Kim et al., 2022 ; Spartano et al., 2019 ). Beyond the physical health benefits, PA also leads to a variety of cognitive and psychological benefits. Engagement in regular PA may delay the onset of neurodegenerative diseases, such