to 19% of the younger adults ( WHO, 2010b ). Among specific subpopulations of older adults, this lack of PA is even more prevalent, such as single older adults ( Masi, Chen, Hawkley, & Cacioppo, 2011 ; Toepoel, 2013 ) and adults with physical impairments ( WHO, 2011 ). Several studies have shown
Janet M. Boekhout, Brenda A.J. Berendsen, Denise A. Peels, Catherine A.W. Bolman, and Lilian Lechner
Nima Dehghansai, Veronica Allan, Ross A. Pinder, and Joe Baker
prior to participant recruitment, and all participants were required to provide informed consent. Participants This study focused on a subset of data collected from participants with physical impairments ( N = 187; 127 males and 60 females with average age of 33.26 [12.61] years). Participants were
Luke Hogarth, Brendan Burkett, Peter Van de Vliet, and Carl Payton
. Swimmers with physical impairment compete across the largest number of classes—10 swimmers for freestyle, backstroke, and butterfly events (S1–S10) and 9 swimmers for breaststroke events (SB1–SB9) with lower class numbers indicating greater activity limitation. Eligible types of physical impairment include
J.P. Barfield, Stephanie Williams, Madison R. Currie, and Xiuyan Guo
, unlike other football variations that serve one primary population (e.g., five-a-side for athletes with visual impairment), PF embraces the Paralympic mission toward social inclusion by empowering persons with varied physical impairments to compete together, including athletes with arthrogryposis
Allen W. Burton and Walter E. Davis
An ecological model of motor behavior presented by Davis and Burton (12) suggests that the qualitative and quantitative aspects of motor behavior for all persons emerge from three sets of constraints: performer, environmental, and task. The involvement and performance of movement activities by children with physical impairments may be optimized by carefully manipulating one or more of these three types of constraints, and by recognizing and accepting that the optimal movement patterns used by these children with unique performer constraints may differ from those exhibited by other children.
Irineu Loturco, Michael R. McGuigan, Valter P. Reis, Sileno Santos, Javier Yanci, Lucas A. Pereira, and Ciro Winckler
This study aimed to investigate the association between the optimum power load in the bench press (BP), shoulder press (SP), and prone bench pull (PBP) exercises and acceleration (ACC) and speed performances in 11 National Team wheelchair basketball (WB) players with similar levels of disability. All athletes were previously familiarized with the testing procedures that were performed on the same day during the competitive period of the season. First, athletes performed a wheelchair 20-m sprint assessment and, subsequently, a maximum power load test to determine the mean propulsive power (MPP) in the BP, SP, and PBP. A Pearson product–moment correlation was used to examine the relationships between sprint velocity (VEL), ACC, and the MPP in the three exercises. The significance level was set as p < .05. Large to very large significant associations were observed between VEL and ACC and the MPP in the BP, SP, and PBP exercises (r varying from .60 to .77; p < .05). The results reveal that WB players who produce more power in these three exercises are also able to accelerate faster and achieve higher speeds over short distances. Given the key importance of high and successive ACCs during wheelchair game-related maneuvers, it is recommended that coaches frequently assess the optimum power load in BP, SP, and PBP in WB players, even during their regular training sessions.
Brianna M. Papotto, Thomas Rice, Terry Malone, Timothy Butterfield, and Tim L. Uhl
Context: Shoulder external rotators are challenged eccentrically throughout the deceleration phase of throwing, which is thought to contribute to overuse injuries. To evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs, as well as identifying deficits, reliable and responsive measures of isometric and eccentric shoulder external rotation are necessary. Previously, isometric measures have primarily tested a single position, and eccentric measures have not been found to have high reliability. Objective: To examine the between-days reliability of multiple-angle isometric and dynamic eccentric isokinetic testing of shoulder external rotation. Design: Repeated measures. Participants: 10 healthy subjects (age 30 ± 12 y, height 166 ± 13 cm, mass 72 ± 10 kg). Main Outcome Measures: Average isometric peak torque of shoulder external rotation at 7 angles was measured. From these values, the angle of isometric peak torque was calculated. Dynamic eccentric average peak torque, average total work, and average angle of peak torque were measured. Results: Between-days reliability was high for average peak torque during isometric contractions at all angles (ICC ≥ .85), as it was for dynamic eccentric average peak torque (ICC ≥ .97). The estimated angle of isometric peak torque (ICC ≤ .65) was not highly reliable between days. The average angle of peak torque from the eccentric testing produced inconsistent results. Average total work of dynamic eccentric shoulder external rotation was found to be highly reliable between days (ICC ≥ . 97). Conclusion: Aspects of force such as peak torque and total work in isometric and eccentric testing of the shoulder external-rotator muscles can be measured reliably between days and used to objectively evaluate shoulder strength and identify changes when they occur. Angle measurements of peak torque could provide insight into the mechanical properties of the posterior shoulder muscles but were found to be inconsistent between days.
Alysha Hyde, Luke Hogarth, Mark Sayers, Emma Beckman, Mark J. Connick, Sean Tweedy, and Brendan Burkett
To quantify the influence of the assistive pole, seat configuration, and upper-body and trunk strength on seated-throwing performance in athletes with a spinal-cord injury (SCI).
Ten Paralympic athletes competing in wheelchair rugby, basketball, or athletics (seated throws) participated in 2 randomized sessions: seated throwing and strength tests. Participants threw a club from a custom-built throwing chair, with and without a pole. 3D kinematic data were collected (150 Hz) for both conditions using standardized and self-selected seat configurations. Dominant and nondominant grip strength were measured using a dynamometer, and upper-body and trunk strength were measured using isometric contractions against a load cell.
Seated throwing with an assistive pole resulted in significantly higher hand speed at release than throwing without a pole (pole = 6.0 ± 1.5 m/s, no pole = 5.3 ± 1.5 m/s; P = .02). There was no significant difference in hand speed at release between standardized and self-selected seating configurations during seated throwing with or without an assistive pole. Grip strength (r = .59–.77), push/pull synergy (r = .81–.84), and trunk-flexion (r = .50–.58) strength measures showed large and significant correlations with hand speed at release during seated throwing with and without an assistive pole.
This study has demonstrated the importance of the pole for SCI athletes in seated throwing and defined the relationship between strength and seated-throwing performance, allowing us to better understand the activity of seated throws and provide measures for assessing strength that may be valid for evidence-based classification.
Sharon R. Guthrie and Shirley Castelnuovo
The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the ways women with physical disabilities shape their identities and manage (i.e., cope or come to terms with) their disabilities while living in an able-bodyist culture. Particular emphasis was placed on how these women, all of whom were participating in sport or exercise, used physical activity in the management process. In-depth interviews were conducted with 34 women who had physical mobility disabilities. Findings indicated three different approaches to managing disability via physical activity: (a) management by minimizing the significance of the body, (b) management by normalization of the body, and (c) management by optimizing mind-body functioning. They also indicated that having a disability does not preclude positive physical and global self-perceptions. The implications of these findings for sport and society are discussed.
Yves C. Vanlandewijck, Arthur J. Spaepen, and Roeland J. Lysens
Fifty-two male elite wheelchair basketball athletes, classified into four functional ability classes, were studied to determine whether overall wheelchair basketball performance in a game situation is related to the functional ability level of the participant. To determine the quality of the individual’s game performance, 18 championship games were videotaped and analyzed by means of the Comprehensive Basketball Grading System. Physical fitness parameters (propulsive force and aerobic power) were determined in specific laboratory conditions. Force application on the wheelchair handrims was measured by means of an ergodyn device. Finally, the subjects, while in their wheelchairs, performed a maximal exercise capacity test on a motordriven treadmill. The analyses indicated significant differences in field performance and aerobic power between Class I and the rest of the classes. However, isometric and dynamic force application on the handrims could not be proven to be functional ability dependent. In conclusion, reducing the number of classes to improve fair and equitable competition in wheelchair basketball was considered viable.